In the United States, for example, one can scarcely imagine that married couples have forgotten how to employ the contraceptive. That leaves us with birth rate and death rate. It is certain that there was no decline in the reproductive capacity; in fact, with improved health, the contrary is likely. Copyright © 2020 | Website Development Company : Concern Infotech Pvt. To double per capita output in 30 years requires an annual increase in per capita output of 2.3 per cent; if population growth is three per cent a year, then the annual increase in national output must be raised to 5.3 per cent to achieve the desired level of economic growth. A positive answer might suggest that organized educational efforts to reduce the birth rate are not necessary. The main reason is that in developing economies majority of the population is uneducated. Air Pollution: The technical growth of India has lead not only to medical advancements, but also to an increase in the number of factories. In India, people have belief that they must have son in family instead of a daughter. Both at the international and national levels, income inequality increased. Finally, and most significantly, the death rate in the less-developed areas is dropping very rapidly—a decline that looks almost vertical compared to the gradual decline in western Europe—and without regard to economic change. cations for the pace of their economic development. Population growth continue to increase in the world at a fast pace. But it is not possible to reduce technological advancements to decrease the death rate in India. Population Policy of India! Increasing the legal age of marriage (from 15 to 18 years for girls and from 18 to 21 years for boys), freezing the population at the 1971 level until 2000 for the ��� We turn now to a comparison of the present situation in the less-developed areas with the demographic circumstances in western Europe prior to the industrial revolution. Among the industrialized countries, Japan and most of the countries of Europe are now growing relatively slowly—doubling their populations in 50 to 100 years. When their income is increased they would enhance their standard of living and accept small family norms. The rates of population growth of the various countries of the world are, with few exceptions, simply the differences between their birth rates and death rates. Ready to take your reading offline? GEOGRAPHY SYLLABUS Paper 1. One may surmise that the birth rate responds more slowly because its reduction requires changes in more deeply seated customs. Targets of National Population Policy 3. According to reports, India's population hit 1 billion in May 2000, increasing the urgency for the country to moderate its population growth. All 59 Questions. Objectives of National Population Policy ��� World Population Projections 2019 What to study? Ltd. Salient Features of the Indian Constitution, Monthly The main problem arise from fast population growth is the lack of resources and land. Due to the increased population, the educational facilities are very limited. Due to the increase in population, the problems of scarce resources, jobs, and poverty increases. The pre-industrial, low-income, and less-developed areas of the world, with two thirds of the world’s population—including Asia (except Japan and the Asiatic part of the Soviet Union), the southwestern Pacific islands (principally the Philippines and Indonesia), Africa (with the exception of European minorities), the Caribbean Islands, and Latin America (with the exception of Argentina and Uruguay)—are growing at rates ranging from moderate to very fast. Centripetal and Centrifugal forces foresees how successful the country's financial system is going to be; many people travel in or out of the country to find suitable jobs. Social Measure: Population outburst is considered to be a social problem and it is intensely rooted in the civilization. The effectual way to stop population growth is to implement family planning policies but the exact way to achieve that has created a great deal of disagreement. It has been highlighted in reports that the key factors that affect the population increase of India are the fast increasing birth rate and decreasing death rates. Additionally, induced abortion is available, free of charge, in institutions recognized by the government to control population increase. On the other hand, in an urban, industrialized society, children are less of an economic asset and more of an economic burden. Some of the diseases caused by air pollution are "respiratory diseases, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer of the lung" (World Health Organization, Internet). Minimum age of Marriage: As fertility depends on the age of marriage therefore the minimum age of marriage should be raised. When population explode, the more waste would be produced. According to ABC News, India currently faces approximately "33 births a minute, 2,000 an hour, 48,000 a day, which calculates to nearly 12 million a year". The birth rate in 1800 was about 35 per 1,000 population and the average number of children ever born to women reaching age 45 was about five. Population is calculated by counting the actual number of people in a given area and measuring birth to death ratios. A reduced death rate has only a slight effect on the proportion of children in the population, and this effect is in a rather surprising direction. In a pre-industrial, agrarian society children start helping with chores at an early age; they do not remain in a dependent status during a long period of education. According to, "More than 300 million Indians earn less than US $1 everyday and about 130 million people are jobless." Some parents do not have any child, despite expensive medical treatment. To recapitulate, a short-term increase in per capita income may be possible in most less-developed areas, even if the fertility rate is not reduced. A brief, over-simplified history of the course of birth and death rates in western Europe since about 1800 not only provides a frame of reference for understanding the current birth and death rates in Europe, but also casts some light on the present situation and prospects in other parts of the world. But people do not realize that along with washing off their sins in the river, they are also washing off their body wastes, leading to polluting the holy water of the river. During 2015 India population is estimated to be increased by 17 206 607 people and reach 1 304 162 999 in the beginning of 2016. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. If the present world population should continue to increase at its present rate of two per cent per year, then, within two centuries, there will be more than 150 billion people. The developing countries already face challenge of limited resources due to fast growth of population as the resources available per person are reduced further which results in increased poverty, malnutrition, and other large population-related problems. To account for the differences in population size, demographers often use the concept of crude birth and death rate. Moreover, this rate is still increasing. World industries ��� locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade. In India, it is important for the women to have equal rights to take decision about the number of children to be produced. The total number or illiterate persons increases every year. There are several important differences between the circumstances in today’s less-developed areas and those in pre-industrial Europe. It is done to achieve a balance between the population size and resources, to get ready young people for responsible attitudes in human sexuality, and to provide education and services to all. International migration is a negligible factor in rates of growth today. That rapid growth has continued since 2000, accounting for almost half the increase of the U.S. population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2006). As the population increases in future, more forests are cleared. Population explosion in developing countries such as India is a matter of concern because it disrupts the development of the country and its society. Moreover, rapid population growth and a heavy burden of child dependency divert investment funds to less productive uses—that is, less productive in the long run. Due to the tropical climate of India, air pollution also causes smog which may result in headaches, dizziness, breathing difficulties, or even mass illness due to carbon monoxide. Unfortunately, the resources do not increase in same manner as the population increases. The size of the Latino population doubled between 1980 and 2000, and Latinos also accounted for 40% of the country's population growth. It will be helpful to orphan children and children to couples. Geography is included in the General Studies paper in Prelims as well as GS Paper 1 in UPSC CS(Main) examination. So women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically. Financial incentives and other facilities like leave and promotion can be extended to the working class which adopts small family norms. Introduction: A positive population policy which aims at reducing the birth rate and ultimately stabilising the growth rate of population. Unlike, Figure 2. They are restricted to house. Civil Service India is a website dedicated to the Civil Services Exam. The only important exception to this statement relates to Ireland, where the decline in the birth rate was brought about by an increase of several years in the age at marriage combined with an increase of 10 to 15 per cent in the proportion of people remaining single. A companion World Population Prospects 2019: Highlights report (ST/ESA/SER.A/423) provides key findings and summarises key population trends described by the estimates and projections presented in World Population Prospects 2019. Over populated regions need more resources. Due to economic and political challenges in India, country faces problems of the population explosion. Nevertheless, even in the short run, progress will be much faster and more certain if the birth rate falls. Many parts of India are not capable of providing proper sanitary practices such as a bathroom and toilet. Thus, it is crucial for the women to get proper education so that they can decide on the number of children they want and be aware of the available birth control measures. As preventive measure of population, there is a need to change in Social Outlook. Figure 1. In an industrialized economy, the family is no longer the unit of production and individuals come to be judged by what they do rather than who they are. But, due to increase in population, the cost of production of the basic necessities of life, such as food, increases. Although the current two per cent a year does not sound like an extraordinary rate of increase, a few simple calculations demonstrate that such a rate of increase in human population could not possibly continue for more than a few hundred years. Although, dumping these bodies is a spiritual act in India among the Hindus, but it contaminate the water. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Other Measures: Other actions to decrease population are many. Report of ABC News revealed that renowned Indian author, Shobha De stated, "God said 'Go forth and produce' and we just went ahead and did exactly that." Nevertheless, in India, society does not give more importance on women education because of the financial conditions in some families and the religious and social norms. A specific example will clarify this point. This improvement might be considered constructive, but it led to increase in population. Population problems: As per the United Nations World Population prospect, India will overtake in terms of population by 2027. The worst symptoms of overcrowding in every aspect of living conditions are manifested in the urban areas. Free education should be given to them. This difference results from the fact that in many less-developed countries almost all women at age 35 have married, and at an average age substantially less than in 18th-century Europe. The govt. These dependents create pressure to produce for immediate consumption only. The jagged line describing the variable current birth rate represents in some instances—notably the United States—a major recovery in the birth rate from its low point. If so, a course of action that would directly accelerate the decline in fertility becomes an important part of the whole development effort which is directed toward improving the quality of each individual’s life. The difference between the birth rate and the death rate measures the growth rate of population. Mexico’s population, for example, has grown in recent years at a rate of approximately three and one-half per cent a year. The increase in gross national product (GNP) is significantly reduced in per capita terms on account of the rapidly growing population. This figure may rise if the population growth is uncontrolled. For mains: concerns raised, challenges associated and measures necessary to tackle the population growth. Context: World Population Prospects ��� Click on the name of the country or dependency for current estimates (live population clock), historical data, and projected figures. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Urbanisation should be encouraged. According to reports, India's population hit 1 billion in May 2000, increasing the urgency for the country to moderate its population growth. Geography Paper- 1 study material for UPSC CSE help you Learn about all the aspects of Geography Paper- 1. These factors lead to population increase and government face problem in implementing population control strategies. Another group of industrialized countries—the United States, the Soviet Union, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and Argentina—are doubling their populations in 30 to 40 years, approximately the world average. But even at three per cent per year, two centuries would see the population of Mexico grow to about 13.5 billion people. Many cities in India have crossed the limits of suspended particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and other pollutants due to vehicular and industrial emanation. Effects of the rapid population growth in India: There is unfavourable impact of population explosion in India. The birth rate is the ratio between births and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). For prelims: Key findings of the report. Several feasible solutions have been proposed by the government to curb population. The death rate is the ratio between the number of deaths and individuals in a specified population and time (Miller, 253). Population is continually changing due to birth and death rate and relocation among families to explore good sources of income. In India, where the majority of people are illiterate, fatalist, and custom-ridden, and do not believe in family planning, only the government���s initiative can help in controlling population growth. You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. (France is a partial exception. There is therefore surplus of even developed human capital. The fertility rate which is the amount of children per woman that would be birthed in her lifetime is at 6 children per woman; while, in developed countries like U.S. the fertility rate is at 2 children per woman. Generally in rural areas there is disguised joblessness. The decline in French births began late in the 18th century and the downward courses of the birth and death rates during the 19th century were more or less parallel.) It has adverse impact on health on populace of India such as people are contracting salmonella and other gastrointestinal illnesses due to unhygienic conditions. World is facing major challenge of rapid increase in human population since last many decades, (UNFPA, 2011). With population growth astounding at an alarming rate, waste is also accumulating in areas where children and old people are exposed of toxic waste. A landmark in the population policy of the country was the draft statement of Population Policy, issued in the Parliament in 1976, expressing the government���s determination to control population growth. Population and Settlement Geography . The crude birth rate is the number of births divided by the size of the population and multiplied by 1000. View our suggested citation for this chapter. To control population, preventive actions are being taken at global scale. In every unit area, population density is the measurement of the amount of people in a given square mile. The root of all the problems is population increase. Focus Area Analysis. The current birth rate in western European countries is 14 to 20 per 1,000 population with an average of two to three children born to a woman by the end of childbearing. In order to maintain their enhanced standard of living, people prefer to have a small family. The majority of the population growth takes place in poverty suffering areas due to lack of contraception and medical centres. The growth rate of population is a function of migration, birth rate and death rate in a country. Due to massive land and lack of contraception, the population is mounting at a rapid rate within these countries. Consequently, a lot of families have more children than they actually want or can afford. DOES INDIA NEED MORE MISSILES OR MORE INDUSTRIES. Challenges Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam Optional Subject consists of 2 papers. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Also, in rural areas, social and religious norms are more firmly followed. Labour laws in these countries are not synchronized which allow these countries to take shortcuts which means more products to export. Inequitable distribution of income: Population growth in uneven manner can lead to unbalanced distribution of salary. Organisational Structure 5. The National Population Policy, 2000 uses the world ���control��� just thrice in references to National AIDS Control to decrease mortality rate and provide opportunities to new population. These vary from Indian map, world map to GS and News based questions.. This extreme rate is undoubtedly due to temporary factors and would stabilize at not more than three per cent. Calculations of this sort demonstrate without question not only that the current continued increase in the rate of population growth must cease but also that this rate must decline again. The National Population Policy (NPP) finally came into force in 2000. Some of the reasons for this population explosion are poverty, better medical facilities, and immigration from the neighbouring countries of Bangladesh and Nepal. The population problems vary in space and time and differ from region to region. He was posted in Haiti, West Indies, and New ��� Fertility, mortality and migration are principal determinants of population expansion. Employment to Woman is effective method to check the population. Women should be given incentive to give services in different fields. Had this rate existed from the time of Christ to now, the world population would have increased in this period by a factor of about 7×1016; in other words, there would be about 20 million individuals in place of each. There has to be numerous economic measures taken as a preventive measure for population explosion. Nations where industrial development is slow, population is growing but most people struggle to survive due to deficit in medical facilities and shortage of water and food. Social Security is necessary for people. Thomas Malthus was sensible philosopher who expected population to grow in time as long as there's food and shelter. However, due to fast growth of the population, many serious issues emerged like diseases and scarcity of resources. Because of its capital intensive nature, the ability, of the new economy for employment generation becomes limited. People take holy bath in it for spiritual renewal and drink water from it. Current Affairs Magazine. Better educated manpower seeks for occupations of greater status, which are opened up by the new development efforts. Phone : +91 96000 32187 / +91 94456 88445. Though, India's financial system is improved due to new business ventures. First is late Marriage as this will reduce the period of reproduction among the females and bring down the birth rate. Economic analysis clearly indicates that the answer is yes. Therefore, when population increases, the number of people dying is also increasing, and it lead to the pollution in the river Ganga. Moreover, there are few remaining areas comparable to North and South America into which a growing population could move and which could provide rapidly expanding markets. India's culture is very strong and prevails since historic time. This river is considered sacred. The population density of India in 1996 was about 287 persons per square ��� Such statistical figures indicate that due to the improvements in the medical field, human life is secured and they live longer. Adoption is also effective way to curb population. Economic progress will be slower and more doubtful if less-developed areas wait for the supposedly inevitable impact of modernization on the birth rate. Concurrently, it renders many of the old occupations out of day and redundant. It means that amount of people who leaves India to settle permanently in another country (emigrants) will prevail over the amount of people who moves into the country ( Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. India has the second largest population in the world and will soon exceed China. Academicians and researchers stressed that country must develop ways to lessen future problems through educating developing countries and provide contraception to areas that have larger population growth. It helps in reducing birth rate. India currently is griped under serious problem of population explosion and poverty. Even if the death rate were to fall to zero, at the present level of human reproduction the growth rate would not be much in excess of three and one-half per cent per year, and the time required for world population to double would not fall much below 20 years. In the longer run, economic progress will eventually be stopped and reversed unless the birth rate declines or the death rate increases. Second, we know from surveys that as recently as just. The shortage of clean water and over harvesting of crops proves damaging to the environment. To achieve a given level of literacy in a population much more must be spent on schools. In either instance an economy, to grow, must divert effort and resources from producing for current consumption to the enhancement of future productivity. before World War II more than half of the couples in Great Britain practicing birth control were practicing withdrawal, or coitus interruptus. Principles of Geography Physical Geography: 1. Due to economic and political challenges in India, country faces problems of the population explosion. However, family planning is not extensively advertised in rural areas. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. In India, government has initiated numerous programs to curb the population and has been spending huge money on controlling the birth rate. There is in most societies a consensus in favor of improving health and reducing the incidence of premature death. The precipitous decline in the death rate that is occurring in the low-income countries of the world is a consequence of the development and application of low-cost public health techniques. In India, most of the population lives in crowded slums because land is limited and pollution is increasing day by day. Also, due to poverty, the infant mortality rate among such families is higher due to the lack of facilities like food and medical resources. Pressure on land and other renewable natural resources: Population overcrowding put more pressure on land and natural resources. The rates of population growth are not the same, of course, in all parts of the world. Economists have estimated that a gradual reduction in the rate of childbearing, totaling 50 per cent in 30 years, would add about 40 per cent to the income per consumer that could be achieved by the end of that time. In the United States, the amalgamation has led to the Hispanic ethnic group becoming the largest ethnic minority in the country. The change in population caused by net migration as a proportion of total population of the country is almost insignificant and, therefore, can be easily ignored. Providing employment to growing population: Job creation is major issue for countries in which population is increasing at faster rate. Thus, one can understand the varying rates of population growth of different parts of the world by understanding what underlies their respective birth and death rates. National Socio-Demographic Goals for 2010 4. The low-income countries find it difficult to mobilize resources for these purposes for three reasons: The pressure to use all available resources for current consumption is great; rapid population growth adds very substantially to the investment targets that must be met to achieve any given rate of increase in material well-being; and the very high proportions of children that result from high fertility demand that a larger portion of national output must be used to support a very large number of non-earning dependents. They provide the principal form of support for the parents in their old age, and, with high mortality, many children must be born to ensure that some will survive to take care of their parents. While there has been a steady increase of population growth during the past two or three centuries, it has been especially rapid during the past 20 years. The death rate in Ceylon was cut in half in less than a decade, and declines approaching this in rapidity are almost commonplace. Enlarged fertility rates and migration can have significant effects on the general structure of populations. The main factors that greatly impact the population change are the birth rate, death rate and migration. Finally, the social and economic changes characteristic of industrialization and modernization of a country are accompanied by and reinforce a rise of secularism, pragmatism, and rationalism in place of custom and tradition. Increase wakefulness of contraception and to become more environmentally friendly will make human life secure in near future. Such changes in attitude were doubtless a part of a whole set of profound social and economic changes that accompanied the industrialization and modernization of western Europe. Briefly, the realistic question in the short run does not seem to be whether some increases in per capita income are possible while the population grows rapidly, but rather whether rapid population growth is a major deterrent to a rapid and continuing increase in per capita income. According to the United Nations (UN) report the number of children born per woman in the country still lies in the range of 2.1-4. They run the risk that rapid population growth and adverse age distribution would themselves prevent the achievement of the very modernization they count on to bring the birth rate down. In other words, to grow faster an economy must raise its level of net investment. Thus we must explain the decline in the western European birth rates in terms of why people were willing to modify their sexual behavior in order to have fewer children. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth���s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth���s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on ��� Unfortunately, poverty exists throughout the world but is a growing problem in thickly populated nations such as India and China. The family planning methods provided by the family planning program are vasectomy, tubectomy, IUD, conventional contraceptives (that is condoms, diaphragms, jelly/cream tubes, foam tables) and oral pills. Migration: Immigration to better developed countries due to several reasons like better job opportunities, war, and natural causes like hurricanes, earthquakes, and so forth. Instead the resources keep decreasing, leading to making survival for a human being more and more competitive even for the basic necessities of life like food, clothing and shelter. Not a MyNAP member yet? As a result, under-employment and unemployment, including unemployment of educated persons, increases. Therefore measures which can reduce the birth rate should be adopted. The combination of high birth rates and low or rapidly declining death rates now found in the less-developed countries implies two different characteristics of the population that have important impli-. Additionally, the older women need to be educated so that they can teach the correct family planning to their own daughters. Educated women are health mindful and avoid frequent pregnancies and thus help in lowering birth rate. The Growth of Apply @upsc��� Nearly 10 percent of the world's population faces constant freshwater shortage. Question type/source etc. Sustainability is a colossal issue in India and people of India are not well educated to utilize resources in appropriate way. Concept of population: Population is described as the number of people in an area based on specific categories such as ethnicity, age, income, sex, and social economic status. Will India benefit from Joe Biden as President of US? Might we not expect that long before 200 years had passed the population of Mexico would have responded to modernization, as did the populations of western Europe, by reducing the birth rate? Such lack of knowledge about replenishing resources is leaving people out of options on the next step to take. Objectives of National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 2. Poverty is major cause of population increase in developing countries. The average age at marriage rose to 28 and more than a fourth of Irish women remained unmarried at age 45. It is recommended that they should adopt orphan children. Social outlook of the people should undergo a change. This puts India in the intermediate-fertility group of countries in which around 40% of the world population lives. In 2014 the natural increase was positive, as the number of births exceeded the number of deaths by 17 131 987. Indian Health Sector Problems - Can the National Health Policy ��� Overloaded houses, slums and unhygienic localities, traffic jamming and crowded hospitals have become common aspects in the developing countries. As this kind of modernization continues, public education, which is essential to the production of a literate labor force, is extended to women, and thus the traditional subordinate role of women is modified. The use of residual insecticides to provide effective protection against malaria at a cost of no more than 25 cents per capita per annum is an outstanding example. Among the social factors that might account for the change in attitude is the decline in the importance of the family as an economic unit that has accompanied the industrialization and modernization of Europe. The proportion of children in schools is increasing fast and, huge numbers are still not covered. Developed countries are visualizing increasing trends based on the monetary development. There is still favouritism to the women. As a result, the trees that facilitate in reducing the air pollution through the process of photosynthesis are not able to do so. Population growth from the past to present is in increasing trend, and it will continue at even a rapid rate in the next few decades. There is similar direct evidence for other European countries. The spread of education changes the views of people. If agriculture and industry are correctly developed, huge number of people will get employment. Many experts advocated that it is imperative to educate the general public about major issues due to overpopulation and pollution which can help prevent future disasters. Difficulty levels. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? It has been observed that family planning is considered as an offence in most of the tribal and rural communities. Schematic presentation of birth and death rates in less-developed countries, mid-20th century. Each paper is of 250 marks, ... concepts of the over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. In this instance, the decline in fertility was not the result of technical innovations in contraception, but of the decision of married couples to resort to folk methods known for centuries. Thus the combination of continued high fertility and greatly reduced mortality in the less-developed countries raises the levels of investment required while impairing the capacity of the economy to achieve high levels of investment. In the UPSC scheme of the syllabus, Geography establishes the relevance of the existence of humans, the elements that are conducive for life, and the elements that are not conducive to human life. Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. It has been observed that people are given education, welfare, and proper sanitation. This results in deforestation and desertification with permanent damage to the renewable resources. In other countries, however, such social changes have had either insignificant or favorable effects on the birth rate. The National Population Policy, 1976 was completely different from the earlier policies. India is expected to add nearly 273 million people between 2019 and 2050. The death rate declined, starting in the late 18th or early 19th century, partly because of better transport and communication, wider markets, and greater productivity, but more directly because of the development of sanitation and, later, modern medicine. World population problems and policies ,World population problems and policies in geography, World population problems and policies upsc, World population problems and policies only ias exam,China one-child policy, India's population policy, UPSC IAS Mains 2020: Syllabus for Geography Optional Subject it is not surprising that people living in an economy undergoing industrialization should extend the notion of deliberate and rational control to the question of whether or not birth should result from their sexual activities. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, The Growth of World Population: Analysis of the Problems and Recommendations for Research and Training. Instead, the less-developed areas have been able to import low-cost measures of controlling disease, measures developed for the most part in the highly industrialized countries. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. The carrying capacity of India is very restricted due to exaggerate utilization of natural resources. In the same period the output of the non-agricultural part of the Indian economy probably would be slightly more than doubled if the birth rate remained unchanged. Good standard of living is a deterrent to large family norm. These factories lead to various kinds of pollution, including water pollution. This results in air and water pollution. Focus areas. ), the countries of western Europe, the less-developed areas have not had to wait for the slow gradual development of medical science, nor have they had to await the possibly more rapid but still difficult process of constructing major sanitary engineering works and the build-up of a large inventory of expensive hospitals, public health. Increased cost of production: Human inventiveness and technological progression makes it achievable to increase production of goods and services. Also, the infant mortality rate in India decreased from 129 in 1981 to approximately 72 in 1999 (, Internet). Also, cremated and partly cremated bodies are dumped into the river. Although people from neighbouring countries like Bangladesh, Pakistan and Nepal, travel to India; at the same time Indians migrate to other countries like the U.S., Australia, and the U.K. During the 1971 war between India and Pakistan over Bangladesh, the immigration rate increased enormously. Urbanisation process can reduce population increase. Also, India being an agrarian country, the water pollution also comes from pesticides used for agriculture. Children leave home to seek jobs and parents no longer count on support by their children in their old age. When fossil fuels are burnt, gases released in the atmosphere. Migration is the number of people moving in (immigration) or out (emigration) of a country, place or locality. Geography Syllabus for UPSC Prelims and Mains: Insight into ��� As the population enlarges, many experts are concerned about its dangerous results. The real question is: Could India and the other less-developed areas of the world do substantially better if their birth rates and thus their population growth rates were reduced? As the number of people in a pyramid increases, the issues associated with it becomes severe and worsen the situation of country. The worst condition due to increase in population is that many poor people collect utility items through wastelands to build shelter. This is an increase of 1.34 % (16 979 590 people) compared to population of 1 269 976 802 the year before. The crude death rate in India in 1981 was roughly 12.5, and that decreased to approximately 8.7 in 1999. Schematic presentation of birth and death rates in western Europe after 1800. In individual terms, the family with a large number of children finds it more difficult to save, and a government that tries to finance development expenditures out of taxes can expect less support from a population with many children. Evaluation 8. Mortality reduction produces this effect because the largest increases occur in the survival of infants, and, although the reduction in mortality increases the number of old persons, it increases the number of children even more. Many rivers and lakes are contaminated with organic and man-made waste. The burden of school age population has already revealed signs of becoming unbearable. The educated men take mature decisions and prefer to delay marriage and adopt small family custom. A team of dedicated professionals are at work to help you! Motivational and Promotional Measures 6. 1963. The prestigious UPSC civil services exam consists of 3 stages - Prelims, Mains and Interview. Government must devise policies for more employment opportunities. The population of the world, now somewhat in excess of three billion persons, is growing at about two per cent a year, or faster than at any other period in mans history. Annual growth rates in all these areas range from one and one-half to three and one-half per cent, doubling in 20 to 40 years. At present the river is so contaminated that some experts believe such water should not even be exposed in nature without being treated. The reasons for deforestation are to make houses for increased number of people to live in, and to use wood as a fuel in the industries. Population and Settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of the over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Additionally, the nearby factories and human colonies dump sewage directly into the river. Developed countries such as the United States subcontract in China and India because the labour cost is low-priced. The jagged interval in the early death rate and the recent birth rate is intended to indicate that all the rates are subject to substantial annual variation. Suggested Books for Geography Optional UPSC IAS CSE | PMF IAS The death rate is 7 to 11 per 1,000 population per year, and the expectation of life at birth is about 70 years. Common properties such as forest and water are over-exploited. Another measure is self-control. There has been no general return to the very large family of pre-industrial times, although some segments of our society still produce many unwanted children. The result of a precipitous decline in mortality while the birth rate remains essentially unchanged is, of course, a very rapid acceleration in population growth, reaching rates of three to three and one-half per cent. It is recommended that there is a desperate need to take urgent steps to control population otherwise serious problems can arise such as environment damage and restricted availability of food resources. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. The growing pressure of population on resource base, especially on arable land, has created many socio-economic, cultural, political, ecological and environmental problems. In the File Attached Below, I have mentioned:. Many people bath, drink, and eat fish from the same source. Net investment is investment in factories, roads, irrigation networks, and fertilizer plants, and also in education and training. They are still confined to rearing and bearing of children. The merits and drawbacks of controlling population growth can be recognized with reference to the very tangible reality of basic education development. Some of the programs have been triumphant, and the rate of increase has also reduced, but has still to reach the sustainable rate. The factual meaning of population is "the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region" and the literal meaning of population outburst is "a pyramiding of numbers of a biological population". Due to increase in population, numerous factories are set up. services, and highly trained doctors. It is well established that birth rate is mainly responsible for rapid population growth. This law should be strongly implemented and people should also be made aware of this through promotion. A simplified picture of the population history of a typical western European country is shown in, Figure 1. Indian people also believe that cultural norms are for a girl to get married at an early age. (The steep drop in the death rate from approximately 35 per thousand began at times varying roughly between 1940 and 1960 from country to country. However, in countries like India, immigration has little role in the population growth. The result is that the high fertility found in low-income countries produces a proportion of children under fifteen of 40 to 45 per cent of the total population, compared to 25 per cent or less in most of the industrialized countries. More energy needs to be produced to power these factories. Population Crisis. Some of the major types of pollutants are petroleum products required for automobiles, cooking, and other such human activities, pesticides and herbicides used for agriculture by the Indian farmers, heavy metals from industries, automobiles' exhausts and mines, hazardous wastes, excessive organic matter like fertilizers and other organic matter used by farmers, sediments caused by soil erosion produced by strip mines, agriculture and roads and thermal pollution caused by deforestation. The natural increase is expected to be positive, as the number of births will exceed the number of deaths by 17 361 042. This leads to increased poverty, lack of resources, and ultimately increases number of people in country. Population Policies formulated to address the unmet needs for ... India is the first country in the world to begin a population control programme in 1952. To appreciate the pace of population growth we should recall that world population doubled in about 1,700 years from the time of Christ until the middle of the 17th century; it doubled again in about 200 years, doubled again in less than 100, and, if the current rate of population increase were to remain constant, would double every 35 years.

world population problems and policies upsc

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