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Stochastic multi-armed bandit strategies offer upper bounds on the pseudo-regret. For example, the learner may perform one step of gradient descent: The adversary’s running cost gt(wt,ut) typically measures the effort of preparing ut. Introduction to model predictive control. Or it could be the constant 1 which reflects the desire to have a short control sequence. The control u0 is a whole training set, for instance u0={(xi,yi)}1:n. The control constraint set U0 consists of training sets available to the adversary; if the adversary can arbitrary modify a training set for supervised learning (including changing features and labels, inserting and deleting items), this could be U0=∪∞n=0(X×Y)n, namely all training sets of all sizes. - "Optimal control and machine learning â¦ That is. 2. Ayon Sen, Purav Patel, Martina A. Rau, Blake Mason, Robert Nowak, Timothy T. For each two consecutive time nodes, a dynamics constraint is added, such that the state and input at the time node yield the state at the next time point. Model-based reinforcement learning, and connections between modern reinforcement learning in continuous spaces and fundamental optimal control â¦ Intelligence (IJCAI). In this article, I will explain reinforcement learning in relation to optimal control. The Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence ∙ share, In this work, we show existence of invariant ergodic measure for switche... 02/16/2018 ∙ by Amir Rosenfeld, et al. The defender’s terminal cost gT(hT) penalizes small margin of the final model hT with respect to the original training data. by back-propagation. Some defense strategies can be viewed as optimal control, too. The learner’s goal is to minimize the pseudo-regret Tμmax−E∑Tt=1μIt where μi=Eνi and μmax=maxi∈[k]μi. Get the week's most popular data science and artificial intelligence research sent straight to your inbox every Saturday. Weiyang Liu, Bo Dai, Ahmad Humayun, Charlene Tay, Chen Yu, Linda B Smith, 0 share, The fragility of deep neural networks to adversarially-chosen inputs has... Outline ... machine learning tasks In contrast, I suggest that adversarial machine learning may adopt optimal control as its mathematical foundation [3, 25]. This allows for an analytical derivation of the dynamics and their derivatives, such that the problem can be solved efficiently using a large-scale nonlinear optimization algorithm, such as IPOPT or SNOPT. : VEHICLE POWER CONTROL BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING OF OPTIMAL CONTROL PARAMETERS 4743 Fig. to detect. The environment generates a stochastic reward rIt∼νIt. This trajectory is defined by the initial state, x(0), and the set of control inputs, u(t), usually joint torques or muscle stimulations, to perform the desired task optimally. Guarantees, Learning Expected Reward for Switched Linear Control Systems: A One defense against test-time attack is to require the learned model h to have the large-margin property with respect to a training set. Let us first look at the popular example of test-time attack against image classification: Let the initial state x0=x be the clean image. Adversarial training can be viewed as a heuristic to approximate the uncountable constraint (. The optimal control problem is to find control inputs u0…uT−1 in order to minimize the objective: More generally, the controller aims to find control policies ϕt(xt)=ut, namely functions that map observed states to inputs. The adversary seeks to minimally perturb x into x′ such that the machine learning model classifies x and x′ differently. learners simultaneously. If the adversary only needs the learner to get near w∗ then g1(w1)=∥w1−w∗∥ for some norm. The dynamics is the sequential update algorithm of the learner. If AI had a Nobel Prize, this work would get it. For instance. share, We investigate optimal adversarial attacks against time series forecast ... share, Solving optimal control problems is well known to be very computationall... ∙ R represents the reachability set and S the set of foot positions where the robot is stable (considering only a single contact). We summarize here an emerging deeper understanding of these To simplify the exposition, I focus on adversarial reward shaping against stochastic multi-armed bandit, because this does not involve deception through perceived states. 0 I describe an optimal control view of adversarial machine learning, where the dynamical system is the machine learner, the input are adversarial actions, and the control costs are defined by the adversary's goals to â¦ Bayesian brain: probabilistic approaches to neural coding. There are two styles of solutions: dynamic programming and Pontryagin minimum principle [17, 2, 10]. Dynamic programming, Hamilton-Jacobi reachability, and direct and indirect methods for trajectory optimization. Download PDF Abstract: We consider recent work of Haber and Ruthotto 2017 and Chang et al. No learner left behind: On the complexity of teaching multiple This paper studies the case of variable resolution state abstraction for continuous time and space, deterministic dynamic control problems in which near-optimal policies are â¦ Regret analysis of stochastic and nonstochastic multi-armed bandit Data poisoning attacks against autoregressive models. One way to formulate test-time attack as optimal control is to treat the test-item itself as the state, and the adversarial actions as control input. This is a large control space. These adversarial examples do not even need to be successful attacks. Optimal control: An introduction to the theory and its This paper reviews the history of the IOC and Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL) approaches and describes the â¦ machine-learning automatic-differentiation software literature trajectory-optimization optimal-control model-predictive-control Updated Aug 17, 2019 navigator8972 / pylqr For the SVM learner, this would be empirical risk minimization with hinge loss ℓ() and a regularizer: The batch SVM does not need an initial weight w0. The adversarial learning setting is largely non-game theoretic, though there are exceptions [5, 16]. The controller wants to use the least number of training items|a concept known as the data assumption. conference on Knowledge discovery in data mining. For example, the distance function may count the number of modified training items; or sum up the Euclidean distance of changes in feature vectors. Inverse optimal control (IOC) is a powerful theory that addresses the inverse problems in control systems, robotics, Machine Learning (ML) and optimization taking into account the optimal manners. A Tour of Reinforcement Learning: The View from Continuous Control. The adversary may do so by manipulating the rewards and the states experienced by the learner [11, 14]. An optimal control problem with discrete states and actions and probabilistic state transitions is called a Markov decision process (MDP). practice. For example, Many techniques of machine learning, including deep learning, high-dimensional statistical learning, transfer learning, anomaly detection, and prediction from expert advice, rely on optimal transport and optimal control to model tasks, â¦ \underset{\mathbf{x}(t), \mathbf{u}(t), T}{\text{min}} ~~~~ 11/11/2018 ∙ by Xiaojin Zhu, et al. 35th International Conference on Machine Learning. ∙ With these definitions, the adversary’s one-step control problem (4) specializes to. neuro-dynamic programming)? The function f defines the evolution of state under external control. with some ut∈R before sending the modified reward to the learner. In a case of control a speed of a car, the rotational speed of the tires are required to be controlled. Initially h0 can be the model trained on the original training data. the optimal control problem in control community. ∙ Machine teaching is optimal control theory applied to machine learning: the plant is the learner, the state is the learned model, and the control is the training data. The problem can be formulated as follows: \begin{aligned} There is not necessarily a time horizon T or a terminal cost gT(sT). These methods have their roots in studies of animal learning and in early leaming control work (e.g., [22]), and are now an active area of research in neural netvorks and machine leam- ing (e.g.. see [l], [41]). The adversary’s terminal cost g1(w1) measures the lack of intended harm. The purpose of the book â¦ When f is not fully known, the problem becomes either robust control where control is carried out in a minimax fashion to accommodate the worst case dynamics [28], or reinforcement learning where the controller probes the dynamics [23]. Sébastien Bubeck and Nicolo Cesa-Bianchi. the control costs are defined by the adversary's goals to do harm and be hard Optimal control and machine learning for humanoid and aerial robots @inproceedings{Geisert2018OptimalCA, title={Optimal control and machine learning for humanoid and aerial robots}, author={Mathieu Geisert}, year={2018} } This is an alternative set of â¦ Biomechanical Motion Analysis and Creation. The adversary intercepts the environmental reward rIt in each iteration, and may choose to modify (“shape”) the reward into. The adversary’s running cost g0(u0) measures the poisoning effort in preparing the training set u0. Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGKDD international conference share, In this paper, we consider an adversarial scenario where one agent seeks... The IOC aims to â¦ In optimal control the dynamics f is known to the controller. Weiyang Liu, Bo Dai, Xingguo Li, Zhen Liu, James M. Rehg, and Le Song. It requires the definition of optimization variables, a model of the system dynamics, constraints to define the task, and the objective. The dynamics st+1=f(st,ut) is straightforward via empirical mean update (12), TIt increment, and new arm choice (11). Adversarial attack on graph structured data. First, we introduce the discrete-time Pon-tryaginâs maximum principle (PMP) (Halkin,1966), which is an extension the central result in optimal control due to Pontryagin and coworkers (Boltyanskii et al.,1960;Pontrya-gin,1987). training-data poisoning, This control view on test-time attack is more interesting when the adversary’s actions are sequential U0,U1,…, and the system dynamics render the action sequence non-commutative. One way to incorporate them is to restrict Ut to a set of adversarial examples found by invoking test-time attackers on ht, similar to the heuristic in [7]. The time index t ranges from 0 to T−1, and the time horizon T can be finite or infinite. Inverse Optimal Control (IOC) (Kalman, 1964) and Inverse Reinforcement Learning (IRL) (Ng & Russell, 2000) are two well-known inverse-problem frameworks in the fields of control and machine learning.Although these two methods follow similar goals, they differ in structure. Test-time attack differs from training-data poisoning in that a machine learning model h:X↦Y is already-trained and given. Thus, it is possible and promising to introduce the basic QL framework for addressing the optimal control design problem. It should be clear that such defense is similar to training-data poisoning, in that the defender uses data to modify the learned model. Towards black-box iterative machine teaching. To review, in stochastic multi-armed bandit the learner at iteration t chooses one of k arms, denoted by It∈[k], to pull according to some strategy [6]. I use supervised learning for illustration. Furthermore, in graybox and blackbox attack settings f is not fully known to the attacker. Join one of the world's largest A.I. & \mathbf{u}(T) = \mathbf{u}(0) && \hspace{-5.5cm} \text{(Task)}\\ We use the fact that humans minimize energy expenditure in movements to find the optimal trajectory to perform a motion. For example: If the adversary must force the learner into exactly arriving at some target model w∗, then g1(w1)=I∞[w1≠w∗]. Optimal control and optimal transportation have begun to play an important role in data science. Adversarial attacks on stochastic bandits. In this article, I am going to talk about optimal control. ut∈Ut is the control input, and Ut is the control constraint set. Then the large-margin property states that the decision boundary induced by h should not pass ϵ-close to (x,y): This is an uncountable number of constraints. Note the machine learning model h is only used to define the hard constraint terminal cost; h itself is not modified. P l electrical power required by the various ve- hicle electrical loads; P s actual power stored in and drawn out of the battery; SOC battery state of charge; P b power â¦ ∙ We solve these problems using direct collocation. & \mathbf{x}_{L} \le \mathbf{x} \le \mathbf{x}_{U} && \hspace{-5.5cm} \text{(Bounds)}\\ This is especially interesting when the learner performs sequential updates. Anthony D. Joseph, Blaine Nelson, Benjamin I. P. Rubinstein, and J. D. Tygar. The running cost is domain dependent. Let (x,y) be any training item, and ϵ a margin parameter. Machine teaching studies optimal control on machine learners (Zhu et al., 2018; Zhu, 2015). Xiaojin Zhu, Adish Singla, Sandra Zilles, and Anna N. Rafferty. 0 The resulting simulations with state x(t) are used to reconstruct and predict human movements, specifically gait. Paul Shen. Yevgeniy Vorobeychik and Murat Kantarcioglu. The system to be controlled is called the plant, which is defined by the system dynamics: where xt∈Xt is the state of the system, \frac{W_{eff}}{N_u} \sum\limits_{i=1}^{N_u} w_i u_i^{e_i} \,dt \\ \\ \\ â 0 â share . An Optimal Control Approach to Sequential Machine Teaching. Hanjun Dai, Hui Li, Tian Tian, Xin Huang, Lin Wang, Jun Zhu, and Le Song. including test-item attacks, training-data poisoning, and adversarial reward Non-Asymptotic View, Bridging Cognitive Programs and Machine Learning, Learning a Family of Optimal State Feedback Controllers. Sandy Huang, Nicolas Papernot, Ian Goodfellow, Yan Duan, and Pieter Abbeel. The adversary’s terminal cost gT(wT) is the same as in the batch case. Reinforcement learning is one of three basic machine learning paradigms, alongside supervised learning and unsupervised learning.. Reinforcement learning differs from supervised learning â¦ The book is available from the publishing company Athena Scientific, or from Amazon.com.. Click here for an extended lecture/summary of the book: Ten Key Ideas for Reinforcement Learning and Optimal Control. In controls lan-guage the plant is the learner, the state is the model estimate, and the input is the (not necessarily i:i:d:) training data. â 0 â share . It requires the definition of optimization variables, a model of the system dynamics, constraints to define the task, and the objective. Given a sequential learning algorithm and a target model, sequential machine teaching aims to find the shortest training sequence to drive the learning algorithm to the target model. The control input ut=(xt,yt) is an additional training item with the trivial constraint set Ut=X×y. The adversary’s terminal cost is g1(x1)=I∞[h(x1)=h(x0)]. Machine teaching: an inverse problem to machine learning and an Unsurprisingly, the adversary’s one-step control problem is equivalent to a Stackelberg game and bi-level optimization (the lower level optimization is hidden in f), a well-known formulation for training-data poisoning [21, 12]. This means that the trajectory is discretized into time nodes. The control constraint set is U0={u:x0+u∈[0,1]d} to ensure that the modified image has valid pixel values (assumed to be normalized in [0,1]). In the MaD lab, optimal control theory is applied to solve trajectory optimization problems of human motion. . In this talk I survey the mathematical foundation of machine teaching and the new research frontiers opened up by this confluence of machine learning and control â¦ For instance, for SVM h, is the classifier parametrized by a weight vector. 05/08/2018 ∙ by Melkior Ornik, et al. & \mathbf{f}(\mathbf{x}(t),\mathbf{{\dot{x}}}(t),\mathbf{u}(t)) = \mathbf{0} && \hspace{-5.5cm} \text{(Dynamics)}\\ Battery efï¬ciency map Î¦ bat. Yang Fan, Fei Tian, Tao Qin, and Tie-Yan Liu. In Chapter 4, MLC is shown to reproduce known optimal control laws â¦ Optimal control What is control problem? Kwang-Sung Jun, Lihong Li, Yuzhe Ma, and Xiaojin Zhu. ∙ advances in control theory and reinforcement learning. Stackelberg games for adversarial prediction problems. \text{subject to} ~~ If the adversary wants to ensure that a specific future item x∗ is classified ϵ-confidently as positive, it can use The terminal cost is also domain dependent. The learner updates its estimate of the pulled arm: which in turn affects which arm it will pull in the next iteration. There are several variants of test-time attacks, I use the following one for illustration: Optimal control solution techniques for systems with known and unknown dynamics. share, While great advances are made in pattern recognition and machine learnin... introduction. International Conference on Machine Learning. 0 ∙ With adversarial reward shaping, an adversary fully observes the bandit. They affect the complexity in finding an optimal control. It should be noted that the adversary’s goal may not be the exact opposite of the learner’s goal: the target arm i∗ is not necessarily the one with the worst mean reward, and the adversary may not seek pseudo-regret maximization. The adversary’s goal is to use minimal reward shaping to force the learner into performing specific wrong actions. & \frac{1}{T} \int\limits_{0}^{T} This machine learning control (MLC) is motivated and detailed in Chapters 1 and 2. The adversary’s running cost gt(st,ut) reflects shaping effort and target arm achievement in iteration t. ... (RL) is still a baby in the machine learning family. MDPs are extensively studied in reinforcement learning Åwhich is a sub-âeld of machine learning focusing on optimal control problems with discrete state. The control input is ut∈Ut with Ut=R in the unconstrained shaping case, or the appropriate Ut if the rewards must be binary, for example. An Optimal Control View of Adversarial Machine Learning. I acknowledge funding NSF 1837132, 1545481, 1704117, 1623605, 1561512, and the MADLab AF Center of Excellence FA9550-18-1-0166. With these definitions this is a one-step control problem (4) that is equivalent to the test-time attack problem (9). You will learn the theoretic and implementation aspects of various techniques including dynamic programming, calculus of variations, model predictive controlâ¦ 0 This is a consequence of the independent and identically-distributed (i.i.d.) Synthesis Lectures on Artificial Intelligence and Machine The approach of the book employs powerful methods of machine learning for optimal nonlinear control laws. dynamical system is the machine learner, the input are adversarial actions, and Having a unified optimal control view does not automatically produce efficient solutions to the control problem (4). PARK et al. Deep learning is formulated as a discrete-time optimal control problem. In training-data poisoning the adversary can modify the training data. On the other hand, Reinforcement Learning (RL), which is one of the machine learning tools recently widely utilized in the field of optimal control of fluid flows [18,19,20,21], can automatically discover the optimal control strategies without any prior knowledge. Optimal control theory aims to find the control inputs required for a system to perform a task optimally with respect to a predefined objective. Machine learning control (MLC) is a subfield of machine learning, intelligent control and control theory which solves optimal control problems with methods of machine learning. The view encourages adversarial machine learning researcher to utilize Extensions to stochastic and continuous control are relevant to adversarial machine learning, too. A Mean-Field Optimal Control Formulation of Deep Learning Jiequn Han Department of Mathematics, Princeton University Joint work withWeinan EandQianxiao Li Dimension Reduction in Physical and Data Sciences Duke University, Apr 1, 2019 1/26. ∙ Adversarial attacks on neural network policies. ∙ One limitation of the optimal control view is that the action cost is assumed to be additive over the steps. The 26th International Joint Conference on Artificial Wild patterns: Ten years after the rise of adversarial machine test-time attacks, Intelligence (IJCAI). The Twenty-Ninth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence. Machine beats human at sequencing visuals for perceptual-fluency A periodicity constraint is used to simulate gait. This allows one to characterize necessary conditions for optimality and develop training algorithms that do not rely on gradients with respect to the trainable parameters. it could measure the magnitude of change ∥ut−~ut∥ with respect to a “clean” reference training sequence ~u. More specifically I am going to talk about the unbelievably awesome Linear Quadratic Regulator that is used quite often in the optimal control world and also address some of the similarities between optimal control and the recently hyped reinforcement learning. This view encompasses many types of adversarial machine learning, Matthew Jagielski, Alina Oprea, Battista Biggio, Chang Liu, Cristina The adversary’s goal is for the “wrong” model to be useful for some nefarious purpose. Nita-Rotaru, and Bo Li. In all cases, the adversary attempts to control the machine learning system, and the control costs reflect the adversary’s desire to do harm and be hard to detect. (AAAI “Blue Sky” Senior Member Presentation Track). Dynamic optimization and differential games. Key applications are complex nonlinear systems for which linear control theory methods are not applicable. ∙ The control input at time t is ut=(xt,yt), namely the tth training item for t=0,1,…. Figure 4.6: Left foot projection on different ground levels z1 and z2. Qi-Zhi Cai, Min Du, Chang Liu, and Dawn Song. In this paper, we exploit this optimal control viewpoint of deep learning. The control state is stochastic due to the stochastic reward rIt entering through (12). The adversary performs classic discrete-time control if the learner is sequential: The learner starts from an initial model w0, which is the initial state. structures – as control input might be. and the terminal cost for finite horizon: which defines the quality of the final state. Now let us translate adversarial machine learning into a control formulation. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND OPTIMAL CONTROL METHODS FOR UNCERTAIN NONLINEAR SYSTEMS By Shubhendu Bhasin August 2011 Chair: Warren E. Dixon Major: Mechanical Engineering Notions of optimal behavior expressed in natural systems led researchers to develop reinforcement learning (RL) as a computational tool in machine learning â¦ This course provides basic solution techniques for optimal control and dynamic optimization problems, such as those found in work with rockets, robotic arms, autonomous cars, option pricing, and macroeconomics. The quality of control is specified by the running cost: which defines the step-by-step control cost, 0 At this point, it becomes useful to distinguish batch learning and sequential (online) learning. We review the first order conditions for â¦ \end{aligned}. Unfortunately, the notations from the control community and the machine learning community clash. The adversary’s control input u0 is the vector of pixel value changes. 1. Machine learning has its mathematical foundation in concentration inequalities. James M Rehg, and Le Song. Of course, the resulting control problem (4) does not directly utilize adversarial examples. Iterative linear quadradic regulator(iLQR) has become a benchmark method... 02/16/2020 ∙ by Cheng Ju, et al. For the optimal control problem in control community, it usually depends on the solution of the complicated Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation (HJBE) â¦ There are a number of potential benefits in taking the optimal control view: It offers a unified conceptual framework for adversarial machine learning; The optimal control literature provides efficient solutions when the dynamics f is known and one can take the continuous limit to solve the differential equations [15]; Reinforcement learning, either model-based with coarse system identification or model-free policy iteration, allows approximate optimal control when f is unknown, as long as the adversary can probe the dynamics [9, 8]; A generic defense strategy may be to limit the controllability the adversary has over the learner. Decision/Control Ideas Decision/ Control/DP Principle of Optimality Markov Decision Problems POMDP Policy Iteration Value Iteration AI/RL Learning through Experience Simulation, Model-Free Methods Late 80s-Early 90s Feature-Based Representations A*/Games/ Heuristics Complementary Ideas Historical highlights Exact DP, optimal control â¦ 10/15/2018 â by Laurent Lessard, et al. on Knowledge discovery and data mining. Solving optimal control problems is well known to be very computationall... Scott Alfeld, Xiaojin Zhu, and Paul Barford. Acknowledgments. 12 05/01/2020 ∙ by Jacob H. Seidman, et al. Optimal teaching for limited-capacity human learners. Foundations and Trends in Machine Learning. It is relatively easy to enforce for linear learners such as SVMs, but impractical otherwise. The problem (4) then produces the optimal training sequence poisoning. Optimal control theory aims to find the control inputs required for a system to perform a task optimally with respect to a predefined objective. Introduction. In Chapter 3, methods of linear control theory are reviewed. These problems call for future research from both machine learning and control communities. An Optimal Control Approach to Sequential Machine Teaching. for regression learning. \frac{W_{tr}}{N_{tr}} \sum\limits_{j=1}^{N_{tr}} w_j \left(\frac{y_{sim,j}(t) - y_{meas,j}(t)}{\sigma_{y,meas,j}(t)} \right)^2 + Kaustubh Patil, Xiaojin Zhu, Lukasz Kopec, and Bradley Love. The 27th International Joint Conference on Artificial ∙ For adversarial machine learning applications the dynamics f is usually highly nonlinear and complex. This is typically defined with respect to a given “clean” data set ~u before poisoning in the form of. One way to formulate adversarial training defense as control is the following: The state is the model ht. Adversarial Classification Settings. & \mathbf{x}(T) = \mathbf{R}_{per} \ \mathbf{x}(0) + \mathbf{t_{per}} && \hspace{-5.5cm} \text{(Task)}\\ Manipulating machine learning: Poisoning attacks and countermeasures 02/27/2019 ∙ by Christopher Iliffe Sprague, et al. To find human movements, typically an objective combining effort minimization and tracking error minimization is used. I will focus on deterministic discrete-time optimal control because it matches many existing adversarial attacks. and adversarial reward shaping below. The 39th IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy. For example, the (α,ψ)-Upper Confidence Bound (UCB) strategy chooses the arm, where Ti(t−1) is the number of times arm i has been pulled up to time t−1, ^μi,Ti(t−1) is the empirical mean of arm i so far, and ψ∗ is the dual of a convex function ψ. applications. 2018, where deep learning neural networks have been interpreted as discretisations of an optimal control problem subject to an ordinary differential equation constraint. share. The problem of state abstraction is of central importance in optimal control, reinforcement learning and Markov decision processes. Rogers, and Xiaojin Zhu. g1(w1)=I∞[w1∉W∗] with the target set W∗={w:w⊤x∗≥ϵ}. ∙ of the Eighteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and & \mathbf{u}_{L} \le \mathbf{u} \le \mathbf{u}_{U} && \hspace{-5.5cm} \text{(Bounds)}\\ There are telltale signs: adversarial attacks tend to be subtle and have peculiar non-i.i.d. The system dynamics (1) is defined by the learner’s learning algorithm. Here Iy[z]=y if z is true and 0 otherwise, which acts as a hard constraint. In Guy Lebanon and S. V. N. Vishwanathan, editors, Proceedings Statistics, Calculus of variations and optimal control theory: A concise Adversarial machine learning studies vulnerability throughout the learning pipeline [26, 13, 4, 20]. Learning. Proceedings of the eleventh ACM SIGKDD international The Thirtieth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence ∙ This means that a dynamics constraint is also added between the first and last time node, together with a displacement, such that the inputs and the internal states are the same at the beginning and end of the trajectory, while a certain horizontal displacement has been achieved. Still, it is illustrative to pose batch training set poisoning as a control problem. The dynamics ht+1=f(ht,ut) is one-step update of the model, e.g. 02/01/2019 ∙ by Yiding Chen, et al. However we don't control rotational speed of tires but only handle with the accelerator and brake â¦ learning. This approach presents itself as a powerful tool in general in â¦ The adversary’s running cost gt then measures the effort in performing the action at step t. Hasn't he always been researching optimization, control, and reinforcement learning (a.k.a. (AAAI-16). 0 The machine learner then trains a “wrong” model from the poisoned data. The adversary has full knowledge of the dynamics f() if it knows the form (5), ℓ(), and the value of λ. For example, x. denotes the state in control but the feature vector in machine learning. Goal: Introduce you to an impressive example of reinforcement learning (its biggest success). approach toward optimal education. If the machine learner performs batch learning, then the adversary has a degenerate one-step. More generally, W∗ can be a polytope defined by multiple future classification constraints. The defender’s running cost gt(ht,ut) can simply be 1 to reflect the desire for less effort (the running cost sums up to k). ∙ ∙ machine learners. In particular, we introduce the discrete-time method of successive â¦ Scalable Optimization of Randomized Operational Decisions in Online learning as an LQG optimal control problem with random matrices Giorgio Gnecco 1, Alberto Bemporad , Marco Gori2, Rita Morisi , and Marcello Sanguineti3 AbstractâIn this paper, we combine optimal control theory and machine learning techniques to propose and solve an optimal control formulation of online learning â¦ proach to adaptive optimal control. problems. 11/11/2018 â by Xiaojin Zhu, et al. When adversarial attacks are applied to sequential decision makers such as multi-armed bandits or reinforcement learning agents, a typical attack goal is to force the latter to learn a wrong policy useful to the adversary. Using machine teaching to identify optimal training-set attacks on Also given is a “test item” x. He's published multiple books on these topics, many of which were released long before the "recent" machine learning revolution. share. I describe an optimal control view of adversarial machine learning, where the This course will explore advanced topics in nonlinear systems and optimal control theory, culminating with a foundational understanding of the mathematical principals behind Reinforcement learning techniques popularized in the current literature of artificial intelligence, machine learning, and the design of intelligent agents like â¦ I use Support Vector Machine (SVM) with a batch training set as an example below: The state is the learner’s model h:X↦Y. The distance function is domain-dependent, though in practice the adversary often uses a mathematically convenient surrogate such as some p-norm ∥x−x′∥p. The adversary’s running cost is g0(x0,u0)=distance(x0,x1). The dynamical system is trivially vector addition: x1=f(x0,u0)=x0+u0. REINFORCEMENT LEARNING AND OPTIMAL CONTROL BOOK, Athena Scientific, July 2019. Read MuZero: The triumph of the model-based approach, and the reconciliation of engineering and machine learning approaches to optimal control and reinforcement learning. For example, the adversary may want the learner to frequently pull a particular target arm i∗∈[k]. One-step control has not been the focus of the control community and there may not be ample algorithmic solutions to borrow from. control problem. 06/15/2020 ∙ by Muhammad Abdullah Naeem, et al. Reinforcement learning (RL) is an area of machine learning concerned with how software agents ought to take actions in an environment in order to maximize the notion of cumulative reward. In Jennifer Dy and Andreas Krause, editors, Proceedings of the Optimal Adversarial Attack on Autoregressive Models, Robust Deep Learning as Optimal Control: Insights and Convergence I mention in passing that the optimal control view applies equally to machine teaching [29, 27], and thus extends to the application of personalized education [24, 22]. shaping. ∙ Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems (NIPS). Earlier attempts on sequential teaching can be found in [18, 19, 1]. Adversarial reward shaping can be formulated as stochastic optimal control: , now called control state to avoid confusion with the Markov Decision Process states experienced by an reinforcement learning agent, consists of the sufficient statistic tuple at time. I will use the machine learning convention below. Differentiable Programming and Neural ODEs for Accelerating Model Based Reinforcement Learning and Optimal Control. Regularisation for Inverse Problems and Machine Learning, Campus Jussieu, Sorbonne Université, Paris 19.11.2019 Deep learning as optimal control problems Martin Benning, Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) Models and numerical methods This is joint work with Elena Celledoni, Matthias J. Ehrhardt, Brynjulf â¦ communities, © 2019 Deep AI, Inc. | San Francisco Bay Area | All rights reserved. As examples, I present
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