Saw some awesome and beautiful sights, this was a trip of a life time.! The European Space Agency (ESA) released a video this past week showing the evolution of two very large and disconcerting cracks in Antarctica’s Pine Island Glacier. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations. Continuity of the mass loss of the world’s glaciers and ice caps from the grace and grace follow-on missions. Many glaciers started retreating from an advanced position near their LIA terminal moraines in the last decades of the 19th century, even if they reached the absolute maximum extent somewhat earlier. In case the glacier surface and subglacial topographies are well known at one point in time, the computation of volume changes can be based on an accurate estimate of the glacier volume at that time and the method mainly relies on the assumption that there is a statistical relationship between volume and area changes (see Figure 4). Sust. Cryosphere 7, 877–887. sms. TJ contributed the non-surface mass-balance estimates. Rather than including the ice melt (∼3.7 Gt) due to the Gjálp eruption in October 1996 (Guðmundsson et al., 2004), in the average rate over the period (1995/95–2018/19), it is subtracted and then added to the glaciological year 1996/97. The uncertainty of 0.1 m w.e. 3 (2016–2017). The mass-balance measurements have been conducted at ∼60, ∼25, and ∼25 locations since 1991/92, 1996/97, and 1987/88 for Vatnajökull, Langjökull, and Hofsjökull, respectively. a−1, while the corresponding number for Hofsjökull and Langjökull is determined to be 0.07 m w.e. (2019). Lett. We went kayaking in the glacier bay in our Intex K2 Explorer kayaks and witnessed a MASSIVE event as a chunk of a glacier calved about 50 foot from us and created a 10-12 foot wave. (2013). The time steps in this study correspond to the glaciological year (Cogley et al., 2011) from autumn to autumn, using the floating-date mass-balance system (Østrem and Brugman, 1991; Björnsson et al., 2002; Cogley et al., 2011), that is, the end of the summer melt season marks the start of a new glaciological year. doi:10.1080/20014422.1940.11880686, Thorarinsson, S. (1943). ICES (2018). [Above: Jason Rouch Jr. made this video of ice calving at Portage Glacier on Saturday, April 11, 2020.] There is large interannual variability that often is impacted by volcanic eruptions enhancing the melt and dust or volcanic tephra blown onto the glacier surface from their sediment-rich vicinity. (2015). (Amsterdam, Netherlands:Elsevier), 241–255. Retreat of calving glaciers worldwide has contributed substantially to sea-level rise in recent decades. The mass loss due to energy dissipation in Vatnajökull, caused by the flow of water and ice as estimated by Jóhannesson et al. 5, 590–598. Cryosphere 11, 741–754. Radić, V., and Hock, R. (2010). The glaciers of Iceland. Temperatures had fallen enough in the last few weeks to form 6″ of glassy, crystal-clear ice on the lake, and hundreds of skaters had flocked from Anchorage to skate to the glacier. 66, 685–697. A consensus estimate for the ice thickness distribution of all glaciers on Earth. Res. With less snowfall on the glaciers, dirty ice appears earlier from beneath the snow in spring, which enhances the glacier ablation (Björnsson et al., 2013; Gunnarsson et al., 2020). The remaining 1.3% of glacier area that is not observed is assumed to have the same mass loss rate as the measured small glaciers. Björnsson, H., and Pálsson, F. (2008). High-resolution terrestrial … Glaciers in Iceland are useful indicators of climate conditions in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 579, 233–239.
Map of Iceland showing the glaciers considered in this study. Paris, France: Atlantis Press, 2, 613. a−1. It is genuinely astonishing – the volume of the collapse is apparently 7.4 cubic kilometres. Lett. Jökull 49, 29–46. Left: The specific mass balance of glaciers in Iceland as observed, modeled, and estimated with various methods. FIGURE 4. Average mass change rates are computed for several selected periods (the reporting periods of the forthcoming IPCC AR6 assessment; see colored horizontal lines in Figure 5): 1900/01–1989/90: −3.1 ± 1.1 Gt a−1, 1970/71–2017/18: −4.3 ± 1.0 Gt a−1, 1992/93–2017/18: −8.3 ± 0.8 Gt a−1, and 2005/06–2017/18: −7.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1. The record shows variability on decadal timescales with a period of near-zero mass balance in the 1980s and early 1990s before the onset of consistently negative mass balance on the order of −1 m a−1 that has prevailed since then. Almost half of the total mass change occurred in 1994/95 to 2018/19, or −240 ± 20 Gt (−9.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1 on average), with most rapid loss in 1994/95 to 2009/10 (mass change rate −11.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1). When calculating the uncertainty of the mass change of all Icelandic glaciers for the four IPCC periods (shown as horizontal lines in Figure 5), the uncertainties of the different contributions are considered independent. "CHASING ICE" captures largest glacier calving ever filmed - … Before the glaciological year 1980/81, the observations do not allow the estimation of annual or decadal variability. Tech. |, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper, CSU(WDS)/IUGG(IACS)/UNEP/UNESCO/WMO, World Glacier Monitoring Service, https://doi.org/10.3389/feart.2020.523646, https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2020.523646/full#supplementary-material, https://www.ipcc.ch/srocc/chapter/chapter-2/, https://www.ipcc.ch/srocc/chapter/chapter-3-2/, https://wgms.ch/downloads/Oestrem_Brugman_GlacierMassBalanceMeasurements_1991.pdf. JB, EM, EB, and TJ processed and contributed the geodetic estimates. [Dataset]. doi:10.5194/tc-11-1665-2017, Schmidt, L. S., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Pálsson, F., Langen, P. L., Guðmundsson, S., and Björnsson, H. (2019). Using this area as input for the volume–area relationship (Eq. Global glacier change bulletin No. The geodetic mass balance of Eyjafjallajökull ice cap for 1945–2014: processing guidelines and relation to climate. Glaciol. Eyþórsson, J. doi:10.1038/ngeo1481, Björnsson, H. (1986). (2020) includes geothermal melting, energy dissipation caused by the flow of water and ice, volcanic eruptions, and calving. The town Stykkishólmur is shown with a purple dot, from which a temperature record exists since the middle of the 19th century. The mass balance year 2014/15 was characterized by a long sequence of low-pressure systems arriving one after another through the winter, bringing large amounts of precipitation, followed by a cool summer with little melt, resulting in positive mass balance on all the glaciers. Geophys. Glossary of glacier mass balance and related terms (IHP-VII technical documents in hydrology No. Cryosphere 9, 139–150. The volume–area point marked 1890* for Vatnajökull in Figure 4 includes an area correction that corresponds to a 500 m retreat (area reduction by 100 km2), and the point marked 1890** includes double this area correction (the point marked 1890 corresponds to data that have not been adjusted to reflect the impact of the surges on the area). Zemp, M., Frey, H., Gärtner-Roer, I., Nussbaumer, S. U., Hoelzle, M., Paul, F., et al. Comparison of the glaciological surface mass-balance record of Hofsjökull with results from geodetic mass balance, derived by differencing digital elevation models (DEMs), revealed a bias between the two data sets. a−1 (value in 2016/17) for the last two years of the record. This comparison revealed ∼0.05 m w.e. (2) Simulation of the surface mass balance of Vatnajökull for the years 1980/81 to 1991/92 from the HIRHAM5 snowpack model that uses MODIS albedo (Schmidt et al., 2017) and is forced with a ERA-Interim downscaling using the HARMONIE–AROME model at 2.5 km resolution (Schmidt et al., 2019) (see shaded area in Figure 3A). Front. The volumes of Hofsjökull and Vatnajökull in 1945 and 1890 and for Langjökull in 1890 were calculated based on the derived fit (shown with stars in Figure 4). (2020). 66, 313–328. website: www.homewiththehoopers.cominstagram: https://www.instagram.com/homewiththehoopers/FB: https://www.facebook.com/homewiththehoopers/?ref=bookmarksSteeringSouth (Josh Bastyr): https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCcz3eUxIXrnHSPmIAQRWc7wJukin Media Verified (original)For licensing/permission to use: Contact - email@example.com 63, 95–140. doi:10.3189/S026030550000104X. Glaciers in most areas of the world are losing mass as global temperatures rise in response to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere (e.g., Vaughan et al., 2013; Hock et al., 2019; Meredith et al., 2019; Zemp et al., 2019). 43, 12138–12145. Since 2001, mass-balance measurements have also been carried out on an irregular basis on Mýrdalsjökull (Ágústsson et al., 2013). Geosci. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Geodetic mass balance has been estimated for several glaciers, with an increasing coverage in recent years (Pálsson et al., 2012; Jóhannesson et al., 2013; Hannesdóttir et al., 2015a; Magnússon et al., 2016; Belart et al., 2019; Belart et al., 2020). We present results from a new approach combining the continuum model Elmer/Ice and the discrete element/particle model HiDEM, applied to Store Glacier, a large calving glacier in West Greenland. The red dotted line shows the extension of this record for the years 1890/91 to 1944/45 (see Section 2). doi:10.1002/2016GL071485, Gärtner-Roer, I., Naegeli, K., Huss, M., Knecht, T., Machguth, H., and Zemp, M. (2014). for Vatnajökull (black), Langjökull (blue), and Hofsjökull (green). Shocking huge Glacier calving creates huge wave like tsunami … Steffen Glacier in 1987 and 2019 Landsat images. When adding the non-surface mass-balance component from Jóhannesson et al. Evolution of the Norwegian plateau icefield Hardangerjøkulen since the “little ice age”. Jökull 69, 1–34. (2020) (−15.9 ± 4 Gt a−1 for 2002–2019) is almost twice as large as our estimate, possibly due to signal leakage from mass changes of the neighboring Greenland Ice Sheet or an overcompensation for the effect of glacial isostatic rebound (e.g., Sørensen et al., 2017). In previous studies, we have assumed the uncertainty for a point measurement of the surface mass balance to be ∼0.30 m w.e, while the uncertainty of the specific annual mass-balance values is expected to be smaller due to the good coverage of the survey sites and the number of measurement stakes (Björnsson et al., 2013). (2019). Geophys. About half of Vatnajökull’s glacier margin is substantially affected by surges (Björnsson et al., 2003). This reduces the average mass balance due to geothermal melting and volcanic eruptions on Vatnajökull presented by Jóhannesson et al. Cumulating the specific mass-balance values for this period (Figure 3F) shows that Vatnajökull has lost about 45 m w.e. A part of this non-surface mass balance is caused by calving activity, which was insignificant in the first half of the 20th century, but has been gradually increasing with the ongoing retreat of the outlet glaciers located in over-deepened troughs (Guðmundsson et al., 2019). Geophys. In the summer of 2010, a thin layer of volcanic tephra was distributed onto almost all Icelandic glaciers in the final phase of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April–May 2010 (Gudmundsson et al., 2012; Gascoin et al., 2017; Möller et al., 2019). Glacier calving is a majestic and sad sight. Terminus lakes on the south side of Vatnajökull ice cap, SE-Iceland. The sound of ice cracking was faint at first. Sørensen, L. S., Jarosch, A. H., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Barletta, V. R., Forsberg, R., Pálsson, F., et al. 111, F03001. Glaciers in Iceland have received much attention through the centuries due to their proximity to inhabited regions (Figure 1). (Editors) (2020a). scale 1:500,000, with two inset maps of 1:250,000, Tröllaskagi and Kerlingarfjöll, with accompanying illustrated pamphlet, and list of glacier place-names. [Dataset]. The corresponding minimum and maximum volume estimates for Vatnajökull in 1945 and 1890 (shown with error bars in Figure 4) are larger than the volumes estimated for the LIA maximum area (1890 star in Figure 4) and the doubled area correction due to surges (1890** star in Figure 4). Ann. In the cold period 1980–1994 (see Figure 3E), 9 out of the 14 years show mass gain, but only 1 year after that (the mass-balance year 2014/15). a−1, respectively. 2). Variations in glacier extent in Iceland since the end of the Little Ice Age. from 1890 to 2019, and Langjökull and Hofsjökull 66 m w.e. doi:10.1017/aog.2020.10. As discussed above, annual mass-balance data are not available prior to 1980/81, so we have used geodetic observations and the volume–area scaling to extend the record to the end of the 19th century. Annual and interannual variability and trends of albedo for Icelandic glaciers. doi:10.2166/nh.2009.210. a−1 and −0.067 m w.e. Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., and Guðmundsson, S. (2001). We apply a variable calving rate as described by Jóhannesson et al. Surv. The largest glacier calving event ever recorded took place on May 28, 2008, while Adam LeWinter and Director Jeff Orlowski were filming the Ilulissat Glacier, in Western Greenland, for the documentary film Chasing Ice. This is illustrated by strongly negative mass balances and considerable retreat of glaciers in the 1930–1950s in Iceland (this study), on the east coast of Greenland (Bjørk et al., 2012), in Svalbard (Möller and Kohler, 2018) and for Hardangerjøkulen in Norway (Weber et al., 2019). Limited influence of climate change mitigation on short-term glacier mass loss. (7) Estimates of the volumes of Vatnajökull and Hofsjökull in 1890 and 1945 as well as the volume of Langjökull in 1890 based on the volume–area scaling (Bahr et al., 1997; Bahr et al., 2015) (Figure 4). The mass-balance record presented here includes the non-surface mass balance due to geothermal melting, energy dissipation in the flow of water and ice, volcanic eruptions, and calving from the study of Jóhannesson et al. A thorough consideration results in an uncertainty of 0.10 m w.e. Earth Sci. Holocene 29, 1885–1905. The geomorphological evidence indicating the maximum LIA extent in front of these surge-type outlets is due to an advance during a surge that increased the area of the glacier without much effect on the glacier volume. Glacier length changes measured by members of the Icelandic Glaciological Society are available at spordakost.jorfi.is. (2004). a−1, respectively, during the period of glaciological observations on each glacier (see Figure 2). 122, 330–344. Conventionally, calving front posi- For a similar approach used at Perito Moreno glacier, Patagonia, calving sizes were es-timated from calving areas visible on time … Their volumes have been calculated using the following surface DEMs: lidar surface DEM of Hofsjökull from 2008 (Jóhannesson et al., 2013), a SPOT5-HRS (Korona et al., 2009) surface DEM of Vatnajökull from 2010, and a SPOT5 surface DEM of Langjökull from 2004 (Korona et al., 2009; Pálsson et al., 2012). Since 2010, the mass loss rate has on average been ∼50% lower, with the exception of 2018/19, when one of the highest annual mass losses was observed (mass change rate −15.0 ± 1.6 Gt a−1). (2013). 61, 745–762. For the periods of AR6 IPCC, the mass change rates are −3.1 ± 1.1 Gt a−1 for 1900/01–1989/90, −4.3 ± 1.0 Gt a−1 for 1970/71–2017/18, −8.3 ± 0.8 Gt a−1 for 1992/93–2017/18, and −7.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1 for 2005/06–2017/18. Geophys. Glaciers in Iceland are all temperate and cover about 10% of the area of the country (Björnsson and Pálsson, 2008), with the largest ice cap Vatnajökull (∼7,700 km2, ∼2,870 km3, in the year 2019) located near the southeast coast, two smaller ice caps Langjökull (∼835 km2, ∼171 km3, in the year 2019) and Hofsjökull (∼810 km2, ∼170 km3, in the year 2019) in the central highlands [area estimates are from Hannesdóttir et al. To say we are lucky to be alive is an understatement. Report No. Reconstructions of glacier mass-change rates for the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century show substantial temporal and spatial variations, but a global mass loss trend became clear toward the end of the 20th century (Leclercq et al., 2011; Marzeion et al., 2015; Marzeion et al., 2012). Hydrol. J. Geophys. Res. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be constructed as a potential conflict of interest. The effect of signal leakage and glacial isostatic rebound on GRACE-derived ice mass changes in Iceland. a−1 for Vatnajökull, which is responsible for most of the 1.5 ± 1.0 Gt a−1 mass gain of Icelandic glaciers during that period. We do not quantify the contribution of this uncertainty about the timing of the LIA maximum to the uncertainty of our mass-balance estimates as this can only be done on a glacier-by-glacier basis. Using the least-squares fitting method, we found c=0.0379 and γ=1.25; the value of the exponent γ is the same as obtained independently by Bahr et al. The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feart.2020.523646/full#supplementary-material, Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Jóhannesson, T., Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., and Sigurðsson, O. (2019). The cumulative mass change of all the glaciers for each period was computed as the sum of the total mass balance of the all glaciers (the product of the specific mass balance and the time-dependent glacier area). a−1. (2020) of 0.055 m w.e. In 2014/15, high winter precipitation and reduced melt during a short and cold summer caused a single anomalous year with positive mass balance. The projected mass losses toward the end of the 21st century are more rapid and persistent than the observations presented here. Res. Right: (F) Cumulative specific mass balance (m w.e.) Guðmundsson, S., Björnsson, H., Pálsson, F., Magnússon, E., Sæmundsson, Þ., and Jóhannesson, T. (2019). Data from automatic weather stations and glaciological surface mass balance, and runoff measurements were used to constrain the model (Schmidt et al., 2018). Evaluation of MODIS albedo product over ice caps in Iceland and impact of volcanic eruptions on their albedo. Geophys. Cryosphere 14, 1043–1050. Geogr. An aerial view of 80 years of climate-related glacier fluctuations in southeast Greenland. Surface elevation change and mass balance of Icelandic ice caps derived from swath mode CryoSat-2 altimetry. (2020) are submitted to the GLIMS database. The large mass loss in 1996/97 is due to the melting of ∼3.7 Gt of ice due to the subglacial Gjálp volcanic eruption in October 1996 (Guðmundsson et al., 2004), followed by a warm and sunny summer with low surface albedo due to dust precipitating onto the glacier surface. (1963). Front. The record spans 129 years, although the annual variability is not available until the last two decades of the 20th century. Persistent albedo reduction on southern Icelandic glaciers due to ashfall from the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption. nowa et al. Draining ∼4% of the Greenland ice sheet (Münchow et al., 2014), Petermann Glacier (PG) is one of the major outlet glaciers in northern Greenland.Being the second largest floating ice tongue in Greenland, it loses ice primary through bottom melting (80%) and secondary to surface losses and calving events (Falkner et al., 2011; Johnson et al., 2011; Rignot & Steffen, 2008).Several … 7, 96. doi:10.3389/feart.2019.00096. J. Glaciol. After 1994/95, an estimate of the annual variability of the mass change for other glaciers than the three largest is included by calculating the net mass change for each glaciological year, using the corresponding F value for each period. Earth Surface. The animation at the top of this page shows a wide view of Pine Island Glacier (PIG) and the long-term retreat of its ice front. 66, 46–65. Earth Sci., 26 November 2020
This was shot on August 10th at Spencer … Mass balance of 14 Icelandic glaciers, 1945–2017: spatial variations and links with climate. 110, F03009. On the characterization of glacier response by a single time-scale. 8, 11–18. Glaciers and ice caps: vulnerable water resources in a warming climate. (2019). The previously estimated mass change rate of −9.5 ± 1.5 Gt a−1 for the period 1994/95–2009/10 (Björnsson et al., 2013), which included 0.5 Gt a−1 from geothermal melting (∼3% of typical ablation of the survey period), is less negative than the current estimate for the same period: −11.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1, now including the recent improved estimate of the contribution from other glaciers than the three largest, the non-surface melt, and calving in Jökulsárlón. A review of volume–area scaling of glaciers. On Wednesday, March 6, 2019, two photographers, a model and I headed out onto Portage Lake for a styled bridal shoot. Glaciol. My buddy Josh (@steeringsouth) and I rode the Alaska Railroad out to Spencer Glacier Whistle Stop and tent camped over night at Spencer Glacier. Treating the methods as independent would therefore lead to underestimation of the uncertainties. a−1. The mass loss from glaciers in Iceland has been projected to continue in the coming decades (Flowers et al., 2005; Marshall et al., 2005; Aðalgeirsdóttir et al., 2006; Guðmundsson et al., 2009; Aðalgeirsdóttir et al., 2011; Schmidt et al., 2019). The gray area in (A) indicates a period of modeled surface mass balance for Vatnajökull (Schmidt et al., 2019), green boxes in (A) and (C) are estimates from various sources (see main text), red boxes in (B) and lines in (D) are from geodetic mass balance (Pálsson et al., 2012; Belart et al., 2020) (heights of the boxes indicate uncertainty of measurements), and purple boxes in (A), (B), and (C) show estimated mass loss from volume–area scaling method (see. Comparison of mass change rates estimated in this study and studies based on glaciological observations provided to the WGMS database (Zemp et al., 2019; Zemp et al., 2020b) and the GRACE observations (Wouters et al., 2019), with the respective estimated uncertainties. The mass change record of each glacier is constructed from three to four methods. doi:10.1016/j.isprsjprs.2008.10.005, Leclercq, P. W., Oerlemans, J., and Cogley, J. G. (2011). Østrem, G., and Brugman, M. (1991). The retreat of many glacier tongues was noticed in the early 20th century and in 1930 a country-wide voluntary monitoring program was initiated (Eyþórsson, 1963; Sigurðsson, 2005). Björnsson, H., and Pálsson, F. (2020). (2005). The calving was caused by ice above the water melting, putting pressure on ice still under the water. A glacial calving in southeast Iceland caused a sudden large wave that sent observing tourists scrambling for cover, and the event was captured on video. Return to rapid ice loss in Greenland and record loss in 2019 detected by the GRACE-FO satellites. The high mass losses of 1996/97 and 2009/10 are conspicuous. doi:10.5194/tc-6-1295-2012, Marzeion, B., Leclercq, P. W., Cogley, J. G., and Jarosch, A. H. (2015). Talence, France: Bordeaux INP ENSEGID. The volume of glaciers in Iceland (∼3,400 km3 in 2019) corresponds to about 9 mm of potential global sea level rise. Have any problems using the site? No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. The uncertainty of the geodetic results of Langjökull in 1937/38 to 1996/97 varies between 0.10 and 0.50 m w.e. (2012). Res. Zamolo, A. (2019) is shown in Figure 6. doi:10.1029/2004JF000262, Marzeion, B., Jarosch, A. H., and Hofer, M. (2012). (2019). The available area and volume data for all of them are therefore combined to estimate the parameters for the volume–area scaling equation. (2020). The cooler oceanic conditions after 2010 (ICES, 2018) cooled the atmosphere and thereby reduced the mass loss in Iceland and Norway, and in Greenland the mass loss slowed down after a record mass-loss year in 2012 (Shepherd et al., 2019; Velicogna et al., 2020). Ash generation and distribution from the April–May 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. (G) Cumulative mass change (Gt) of the same ice caps and the sum of other glaciers in Iceland assuming that the mass-balance records of the glaciers shown in (D) are representative for the unmeasured glaciers. 64, 675–688. The rate in the rapid downwasting period 1994/95–2018/19 is −9.6 ± 0.8 Gt a−1. Rep., ví 2017-016. (2013). Velicogna, I., Mohajerani, Y., Geruo, A., Landerer, F., Mouginot, J., Noel, B., et al. Lett. doi:10.1029/2012JF002523. Unprecedented atmospheric conditions (1948–2019) drive the 2019 exceptional melting season over the Greenland ice sheet. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/srocc/chapter/chapter-2/ (Accessed September 25, 2019). Thorsteinsson, T., Jóhannesson, T., Sigurðsson, O., and Einarsson, B. As a fraction of the typical magnitude of the surface mass balance (∼−1 m w.e. 35, 355–369. (2019). 125, e2019jf005357. Cryosphere 10, 159–177. The calving will continue to increase as the glaciers retreat, and should, along with other non-surface mass-balance components, be taken … The physical basis of glacier volume–area scaling. A spatially resolved estimate of High Mountain Asia glacier mass balances from 2000 to 2016. send. (2020). J. Glaciol. doi:10.1177/0959683619865601, Wittmann, M., Zwaaftink, C. D. G., Schmidt, L., Guðmundsson, S., Pálsson, F., Arnalds, O., et al. Hofsjökull and Langjökull, which currently have more negative specific mass balance than Vatnajökull and are both smaller in area and with less ice thickness, are likely to lose about 60 and 80% of their mass, respectively, until the year 2100 (Guðmundsson et al., 2009; Thorsteinsson et al., 2013). Sci. Glacier change in Norway since the 1960s—an overview of mass balance, area, length and surface elevation changes. (2017) reported that glacier geometries that did not result in calving in Elmer/Ice via crevasse depth calving laws still produced large full-depth calving event when exported into HiDEM, a model representing glacier ice as a lattice of particles connected by breakable elastic beams. The study shows a total mass change of −540 ± 130 Gt (−4.2 ± 1.0 Gt a−1 on average) since the end of the LIA (∼1890), which corresponds to a 16 ± 4% loss of the LIA maximum ice mass. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0093-1. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/srocc/chapter/chapter-3-2/ (Accessed September 25, 2019). The GRACE record (Wouters et al., 2019) has some years (e.g., 2006/07 and 2010/11) with more negative mass change, and others (e.g., 2005/06, 2011/12, and 2013/14) are less negative than our estimates, although the data points from our record are within the large uncertainty range of the GRACE values. The 1890 values are obtained using area based on geomorphological evidence of the Little Ice Age maximum extent (Hannesdóttir et al., 2020). The total height of the ice was about 915 m (3,000 … Brief communication: global reconstructions of glacier mass change during the 20th century are consistent. The previously published mass-balance record for the Icelandic glaciers has now been revised by including this component. Impact of dust deposition on the albedo of Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland. 36, 82–90. 9 (5), 399. doi:10.3390/rs9050399, Geirsdóttir, Á., Miller, G. H., Axford, Y., and Ólafsdóttir, S. (2009). doi:10.1017/jog.2020.37, Jóhannesson, T., Raymond, C., and Waddington, E. (1989). The area loss since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) is ∼2,200 km2 and ∼750 km2 since the year 2000, or about 40 km2 (or 0.4%) per year (Hannesdóttir et al., 2020). doi:10.1017/jog.2019.90, Schmidt, L. S., Langen, P. L., Aðalgeirsdóttir, G., Pálsson, F., Guðmundsson, S., and Gunnarsson, A. Second, right after a surge, the glacier spreads over a larger area than before without any increase in volume, resulting in a thinner glacier with smaller volume than indicated by the volume–area relationship (Eq. Geodetic mass balance record with rigorous uncertainty estimates deduced from aerial photographs and lidar data – case study from Drangajökull ice cap, NW Iceland. Phys. (2013). This generous uncertainty estimate is applied because of the partial dependency between methods, for example, the input data for the volume–area scaling is from both geodetic and glaciological data. 115, F01010. The calving event lasted for 75 minutes and the glacier retreated a full mile across a calving face three miles wide. J. Glaciol. Available at: https://wgms.ch/downloads/Oestrem_Brugman_GlacierMassBalanceMeasurements_1991.pdf (Accessed March, 1996). Regional and global volumes of glaciers derived from statistical upscaling of glacier inventory data. A., Kjær, K. H., Korsgaard, N. J., Khan, S. A., Kjeldsen, K. K., Andresen, C. S., et al. The combined record shows a total mass change of −540 ± 130 Gt (−4.2 ± 1.0 Gt a−1 on average) during the study period (1890/91 to 2018/19). 1 through all volume–area points for these ice caps. More recently, the ocean around Iceland warmed after 1995 which correlates with the enhanced mass loss after 1995 in Iceland (Björnsson et al., 2013, this study) and Norway (Andreassen et al., 2020). There are strong similarities in the response of glaciers around the North Atlantic Ocean to atmospheric conditions, in particular at a multi-decadal time scale. Here, we see tourists visiting Jökulsárlón, with the glacier Breiðamerkurjökull in the background. Non-surface mass balance of glaciers in Iceland. Env. They have each grown to 20km in length and could shear off a hunk of ice the size of Paris and Manhattan combined. Commun. Mass and volume changes of Langjökull ice cap, Iceland, ∼1890 to 2009, deduced from old maps, satellite images and in situ mass balance measurements. Contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. These include the following: (1) Record of the annual surface mass balance obtained with the glaciological method for the three largest ice caps, Vatnajökull (glaciological years 1991/92 to 2018/19), Hofsjökull (1987/88 to 2018/19), and Langjökull (1996/97 to 2018/19).