In recent years, social scientists have sought to understand how research may influence policy [1, 2]. Methods to reach government agencies and other decision-makers with new research findings in accessible and understandable means. Multiple studies offered specific recommendations for message framing, suggesting that the packaging of information is as critical as the information itself [27]. Third, we were unable to assess the risk of bias for individual studies as current standards note difficulties in assessing quality and bias in qualitative research [88]. 2020 [cited 2020 Aug 26]. Studies that focused on a specific level of government had some unique characteristics such as formality and reliance on print materials. Policy research. We used the Model for Dissemination of Research to summarize the findings from the included studies into the themes of source, message, audience, and channel (i.e., strategies). This guide applies to dissemination of traditional and non-traditional research outputs (e.g. In order to build lasting working relationships with a target policymaking audience and maximize the relevance of research products for policy work, researchers must first understand the policy process [27, 30, 34]. Three studies examined broadly defined policymakers [33, 54, 56] and generalized staff [54] without indication for specific branch of government. J Public Health Manag Pract. Crowley M, Scott JTB, Fishbein D. Translating prevention research for evidence-based policymaking: results from the research-to-policy collaboration pilot. Our findings provide leads on how to more effectively to engage with policymakers, leading to a greater likelihood of translating research evidence into policy action. PCORI, AHRQ, etc.) Public policy, whether legislative, executive, or judicial, affects all areas of daily life in both obvious and subtle ways. Sparse knowledge exists regarding effective approaches for dissemination of research-tested interventions among ‘real-world’ practice audiences. Methods of dissemination continue to evolve and expand, which can assist in more effectively reaching diverse audiences. 2001;16:523–44. (2009) Understanding evidence-based public health policy. 2 for the PRISMA flow diagram). Effective dissemination can also be useful in fostering collaboration between potential partners, which is crucial to a successful rural aging in place program. These champions can broker important connections; however, researchers and policymakers alike must remember that these intermediaries are not neutral carriers of information, and may spin research in support of personal agendas [45, 52, 53]. Five studies (about 18.5%) examined dissemination at the federal level [32,33,34,35,36]. A systematic review of barriers to and facilitators of the use of evidence by policymakers. Rural programs also disseminate by presenting findings to different organizations and sharing materials. Syntheses of policy-relevant evidence can be useful, particularly when researchers work in partnership with non-governmental organizations to inform the policy process. Knowledge transfer and exchange: review and synthesis of the literature. Med Care Res Rev. The profession needs more sophisticated evaluations of the effectiveness of various dissemination methods.  |  Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. The role and motivation of the organisation and system is more influential in generating buy in. The authors explain that planning for dissemination is crucial. Dryden-Palmer KD, Parshuram CS, Berta WB. Vol. 2015;4:1. 2014;42:17–25. Same strategy different industry: corporate influence on public policy. McGuire WJ, Rice R, Atkin C. Input and output variables currently promising for constructing persuasive communications. 2011 [cited 2018 Sep 20]. Effective dissemination is characterized by positive engagement of the targeted audience, which enhances awareness, understanding and motivation to implement in the workplace. The same study identified related barriers to the use of CER in policy decision-making, citing a lack of relevant high quality or conclusive research [42]. Many of the barriers and facilitators to research dissemination that we identified in this review mirror those cited by policymakers as barriers and facilitators to evidence use; this overlap reasonably suggests that efforts to expand research dissemination may improve the other. Data-driven child welfare policy and practice in the next century. Assessing citation networks for dissemination and implementation research frameworks. Polit Res Q. 2017;12:1–13. A conceptual model for dissemination of research to policymakers. Health policy-makers’ perceptions of their use of evidence: a systematic review. We chose to focus our review on the United States to capture the strengths and challenges of its unique, multi-level policy and political environment. The most frequently referenced channel for dissemination to policymakers was print materials, with personal communication (including both in-person and electronic meetings and individual communications) a close second. The purpose of the Model for Dissemination of Research is to highlight the gaps between research and targets audiences (e.g., policymakers) and improve dissemination through the use of a theoretical foundation and review of the literature [15]. Through research in implementation science, advances have been made in many areas. Adm Policy Ment Health Ment Health Serv Res. 2019;14:12. Uses of population health rankings in local policy contexts: A multisite case study. Generating meaningful research impact requires engaging with the right people from the very beginning of planning your research idea. McGuire W. The nature of attitudes and attitude change. 2019;76:478–96. Included studies focused on the executive and legislative branches with no studies examining the judicial branch. Massell D, Goertz ME, Barnes CA. 303 full-text articles were reviewed with 27 meeting inclusion criteria. Brownson et al describe three key domains of evidence … Significant international research exists on barriers and facilitators to the dissemination and use of research evidence by policymakers [4, 5]. The Model for Dissemination of Research integrates Diffusion of Innovations Theory, the Mathematical Theory of Communication, and Social Marketing Theory to develop a framework for conceptualizing how information moves from source to audience. Many channels exist to disseminate evidence to policymakers, with the most common being print materials (i.e., reports and policy briefs). That said, some researchers have already begun to think beyond the passage of legislation, as evidenced by Zelizer [44] who examined bill co-sponsorship rather than passage. There are … Otten AL. 2018;19:260–70. Getting the word out: disseminating scholarly work in the technology age. Psychiatr Serv. The current review builds on this existing knowledge to examine how research evidence reaches policymakers and to understand what strategies are likely to be effective in overcoming identified barriers. Print materials and personal communication were the most common channels for disseminating research to policymakers. 2008;29:29–47. Northwest Reg Educ Lab NWREL. Available from: https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2190685. Research may also play a role in shaping policy and has the potential to add objectivity and evidence to these other forces [1, 2, 68]. Dissemination is the planned process of creating aware-ness of the program or intervention among the tar-geted population, informing stakeholders about the innovation, and persuading them to try it. 2019;97:1200–32. Jamieson M, Bodonyi JM. Diffusion of Innovations, 5th Edition: Simon and Schuster; 2003. Moher D, Shamseer L, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. The Model for Dissemination of Research. 2015;26:688–95. PRISMA flowchart. Fourth, many studies examined multiple channels or strategies for how research influences policy, so the parsing of singular strategies (e.g., policy brief, in-person meeting) as an effective approach should be interpreted with caution. that dissemination is most effective when it starts early, galvanizes support, uses champions and brokers, considers contextual factors, is timely, relevant, and accessible, and knows the players and process. The second implementation study reported on a field experiment in which state legislators randomly received relevant research about pending policy proposals [44]. Systems thinking, knowledge and action: towards better models and methods. Second, we provide a rationale for focusing on US studies and that our findings may not be generalizable to other countries. At the federal level, dissemination channels tended to be more formal such as congressional committee hearings [36] and legislative development [35]. The audience included executive branch policymakers [49], administrators (n = 9) [27, 31, 38, 39, 41, 43, 53, 55, 57], and staff [42]. 2014;104:e9–11. Child Welfare. Additionally, the agencies that fund CER/PCOR (i.e. About CRS - congressional research service (Library of Congress). 2. Of those articles, 4922 were excluded due to not meeting inclusion criteria. 15, 16 Third, the dissemination of research to nonscientists is enhanced when messages are framed in ways that evoke emotion and interest and demonstrate usefulness. A mathematical theory of communication. Ideological beliefs, often deeply held and personal, may create a barrier between researchers and policymakers [41], though differentiating ideology from other factors that affect individual position-taking is difficult in most situations [44]. By using this website, you agree to our Dodson EA, Geary NA, Brownson RC. Skolarus TA, Lehmann T, Tabak RG, Harris J, Lecy J, Sales AE. In addition, the role of evidence differs in the US compared with other countries, where the US tends to take a narrower focus on intervention impact with less emphasis on system-level issues (e.g., implementation, cost) [23]. This finding is surprising in our current digital age, as print materials are necessarily time-bound and rapidly evolving technology has created more channels (e.g., social media, videos) which may be preferred by policymakers. McBride T, Coburn A, MacKinney C, Mueller K, Slifkin R, Wakefield M. Bridging health research and policy: effective dissemination strategies. J Health Commun. The results of this systematic review are synthesized in a preliminary conceptual model (organized around the Model for Dissemination of Research) with the goal of improving dissemination strategies for the translation of scientific research to policymakers and guiding future research in this area. 2009;117:495–9. Orton L, Lloyd-Williams F, Taylor-Robinson D, O’Flaherty M, Capewell S. The use of research evidence in public health decision making processes: systematic review. One study piloted multiple styles of policy briefs and found staffers preferred to use and share narrative or story-based briefs while legislators were more likely to use and share statistical, data-based briefs [38]. For example, federal dissemination relied more heavily on formal legislative testimony while state level material relied on written policy materials (e.g., policy briefs, report cards). Allen P, Pilar M, Walsh-Baily C, Hooley C, Mazzucca S, Lewis C, et al. In other words, we need to find ways to get effective practices used (or implemented) outside of research studies. McGinty B, Siddiqi S, Linden S. Academic research-policy translation strategies to improve the use of evidence in health policy development, enactment and implementation: a 3-part embedded case study. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Nelson SR, Leffler JC, Hansen BA. National Institute for Health Research. Fifth, the majority of studies did not use any theory or framework as a foundation or guide for exploration. 2002;21:264–73. We selected this timeframe based on historical context: the 1950s through the 1970s saw the development of the modern welfare state, which was (relatively) complete by 1980. Toward a research agenda for understanding and improving the use of research evidence. State Legislators’ Support for Behavioral Health Parity Laws: The Influence of Mutable and Fixed Factors at Multiple Levels. 2017;42:309–40. consider giving 1.Research. Articles were independently reviewed and thematically analyzed by two investigators and organized using the Model for Dissemination of Research. We summarize strategies and illuminate potential barriers to the research-to-policy dissemination process. Broughton HO, Buckel CM, Omvig KJ, Mullersman JL, Peipert JF, Secura GM. One such similarity is obvious: the dissemination strategy of using champions and brokers mirrors the ERIC implementation strategy of identifying and preparing champions. Research has the potential to influence US social policy; however, existing research in this area lacks a coherent message. Dissemination of Rural Health Research: A Toolkit. California Privacy Statement, The current study synthesizes existing knowledge to understand dissemination strategies of social policy research to policymakers in the United States. A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project. The fairy godmother—nd her warts. PubMed  Fam Foster Care Century. Ashcraft LE, Asato M, Houtrow AJ, Kavalieratos D, Miller E, Ray KN. The full text of each study was considered for inclusion (LEA and DAQ) with conflicts resolved by consensus. One study explored the usefulness of electronic vs. printed research material and again found differences by type of policymaker—legislators were more likely to read hard copy printed material, while staffers gave higher ratings to online content. Mahoney C. Why lobbying in America is different [Internet]. Despite our relatively unique government structure, however, many of the effective strategies for dissemination we identified mirror strategies found in other countries [79, 80]. Urban Institute. 16 Additional research also supports this conclusion. A wide range of contextual variables may influence policy dissemination in the US at different levels of government. The message includes relevant information sent by the source on a policy topic. The majority of studies employed qualitative research methods (e.g., interviews, case studies, focus groups) to evaluate the impact of scientific research on domestic social policy. in Journal of public health management and practice in 2018. However, the typical timeline for academic research (years) is often too long for policymakers whose window for championing a policy action is much shorter (weeks or months) [27, 52]. Allen ST, Ruiz MS, O’Rourke A. the barriers to dissemination and lead to greater utilization of the most effective dissemination strategies in future research projects. NIH Hopkins M, Wiley KE, Penuel WR, Farrell CC. Purtle J, Peters R, Brownson RC. Biological Research for … Lane JP, Rogers JD. Get the latest research from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus. Studies were eligible for this review if they met the following inclusion criteria: (1) occurred in the United States; (2) reported in English; (3) systematically evaluated the impact of research on social policy (this typically excluded studies focusing on policymaker dissemination preferences); (4) discussed domestic social policy (as defined above); and (5) were published in the peer reviewed literature or the grey literature (e.g., think tank research briefs, foundation research publications). While other studies have examined the use of evidence in policymaking globally [4,5,6,7], the current review focuses on US social policy; for the purposes of this study, social policy includes policies which focus on antipoverty, economic security, health, education, and social services [8,9,10]. 2019;34:129–44. Implement Sci. We took a three-pronged approach to develop a comprehensive understanding of existing knowledge in this area. 2002;21:264–73. 2009;58:229–43. 2008 Feb;21(1):1. doi: 10.1016/j.apnr.2007.10.001. The evidence does not speak for itself: The role of research evidence in shaping policy change for the implementation of publicly funded syringe exchange programs in three US cities. Effective dissemination is simply about getting the findings of your research to the people who can make use of them, to maximise the benefit of the research without delay. Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Ghersi D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. Marshall TH. University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work, 2117 Cathedral of Learning, 4200 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15260, USA, Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion (CHERP), VA Pittsburgh Healthcare System, University Drive C, Building 30, Pittsburgh, PA, 15240, USA, Prevention Research Center, Brown School, Washington University in St. Louis, One Brookings Drive, Campus Box 1196, St. Louis, MO, 63130, USA, Department of Surgery, Division of Public Health Sciences, and Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 South Euclid Avenue, Saint Louis, MO, 63110, USA, You can also search for this author in This allows researchers to work alongside policymakers to reach their goals in addressing educational needs with evidence-informed policy [80]. However, this information can be difficult both to operationalize and to collect. Raw search results, citations, and abstracts available upon request. Google Scholar. 2016;43:569–78. Shannon CE. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. The influence of lobbying in the United States also differs from other western countries. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. Twenty-seven articles met inclusion criteria (see the Fig. McVay AB, Stamatakis KA, Jacobs JA, Tabak RG, Brownson RC. The channel is how the message gets from the source to the audience [15]. 2020 [cited 2020 Sep 4]. Health Aff. Infrastructure differences may also represent important differences between the US social policy context and that of other developed nations. The methods of research dissemination to clinicians described in this article are presumed to be effective because of anecdotal reports, conference evaluations, or clinician surveys. As exemplified by Friese and Bogenschneider [27], these forums continue to be perceived as objective, relevant, and useful by policymakers and have succeeded at bringing attention to social policy [86]. 2015;349:g7647. The importance of robust scholarly research for quality, safe, effective and efficient care of patients and their families is well established (Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care 2009).Although research evidence is being produced at an increasing rate, change in clinical practice to reflect this evidence has lagged behind (Kitson 2008, Benner et al. A shared feature of these strategies is the distillation of complex research findings into accessible pieces of relevant information that can then be delivered via multiple avenues. 2017;17:223–4. The audience includes those receiving the message via the channel [15]. In this paper, Philip Scullion sets out to explore and disentangle some of these complexities, examine examples of successful dissemination strategies and provide valuable insights. Partnership and the politics of care: advocates’ role in passing and implementing California’s law to extend foster care: Chapin Hall Center for Children; 2012. Hird JA. 2020. Stamatakis KA, McBride TD, Brownson RC. The peer-reviewed and grey literature was systematically reviewed to understand common strategies for disseminating social policy research to policymakers in the United States. J Phys Act Health. Rogers EM. However, it is possible we missed some studies which examine how research influences policy. The current study aims to make sense of and distill these lessons by conducting a systematic review of scientific literature on the role of research in shaping social policy in the United States. The funding entities had no role in the development, data collection, analysis, reporting, or publication of this work. 1977;71:1026–43. Effective dissemination of comparative effectiveness research findings to practicing clinicians can allow the health system to take advantage of this opportunity. Consequently, institutional policies should be consistent with the policies of relevant funders, the Code and Data Management: a Guide Supporting the Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research. [43] examined more broadly the origins of research evidence use in three SEAs. Dissemination is essential for uptake, and uptake and use of research findings is crucial for the success and sustainability of practice-based research networks (PBRNs) in the long term. CAS  Common themes include the importance of personal relationships, the timeliness of evidence, and resource availability [4, 5]. Communicating evidence-based information on cancer prevention to state-level policy makers. Weissman JS, Westrich K, Hargraves JL, Pearson SD, Dubois R, Emond S, et al. 2019 [cited 2020 Aug 4]. Lomas J. 2010;20:409. Nursing and Health Care Perspectives, 22(3), 124‐129. Dodson EA, Eyler AA, Chalifour S, Wintrode CG. Print materials was the most commonly used channel, including reports (n = 10) [27, 30, 33, 41, 46, 50, 53, 55, 57, 58] and policy briefs (n = 3) [31, 34, 38]. itical science), (2) current practices among researchers, (3) key audience characteristics, (4) available tools for dissemination, and (5) measures of impact. 2.Delivery of Health Care – methods. The qualitative studies mostly employed interviews (n = 10), while others used case studies (n = 6) or focus groups (n = 3). The Model for Dissemination of Research integrates Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Social Marketing Theory with the Mathematical Theory of Communication [11, 12] and the Matrix of Persuasive Communication [13, 14] to address the translation gap between research and policy. Urban Inst. Four studies used the Weiss Typology [29, 36, 54, 55], two studies used the operationalization framework [45, 53], and two studies used the advocacy coalition framework [53, 56]. 2015;25:883–7. To date, lessons learned from dissemination and implementation science about the ways in which research influences policy are scattered across diverse disciplines and bodies of literature. Researchers and policymakers in Canada have sought to bridge the research-to-policy gap. Two studies (about 7%) did not specific the geographic region or state in which the study took place [43, 44]. Traditional research outputs like research articles and books can be complemented with innovative dissemination to boost impact; for example, by preparing accompanying nonspecialist summaries, press releases, blog posts, and visual/video abstracts to better reach your target audiences. institutions should encourage the widest possible dissemination of research, through the most effective modes, and at the earliest opportunity. This document walks the user through the process of creating a strategy to get information to the people who need it, offering simple tips for effectual practice. Available from: https://www.cato.org/blog/complexity-state-government. From research to practice: dissemination of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. J Comp Eff Res. 2017 Mar;7(1):128-136. doi: 10.1007/s13142-016-0404-x. 2014;35:611–30. 2.Delivery of Health Care – methods. Dissemination of health-related research among scientists in three countries: access to resources and current practices.

effective methods of dissemination of research

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