Within the Republic, ancient eulogies and funerary inscriptions testify to a preoccupation among the oligarchy with magistracies and priest-hoods, public building works, military successes, and, above all, contests to prove themselves “first,” “best,” or “greatest.” The citizens of ancient Rome competed fiercely to gain access to the Senate, to ascend the cursus honorum (”ladder of honors”), and to become consul. Born on July 13, 100 bce into a noble family, Caesar benefited from his family connections, which included an uncle, Gaius Marius, who was a general and seven times occupied the office of consul (the highest ranking government official in Rome). The Gallic War: Commentaries on the Gallic War with an Eighth Commentary. Haphaestus Often he appears suddenly and dramatically: to save the Seventh Legion in Britain, to rescue Quintus Cicero, at the forefront of the battle, robed in his general’s red cloak at the siege of Alesia. Eventually the Romans launch a counterattack, their cavalry pursuing and beheading the Treveri leader, Indutiomarus. They are less developed than the civilized Romans: they make human sacrifices; they treat the common people like slaves; they do not have democracy. The English scholar Francis Bacon (1561-1626) thought that the Commentaries revealed Caesar to be the most complete and unique figure to emerge from antiquity. Men like Lepidus or Catiline, thwarted in their attempts to gain power or to pass social legislation, raised armies against the state in 78 and 63 bce respectively. Since 1959 Goscinny and Uderzo’s 32 books have been translated into over 100 languages (including ancient Greek and Latin), used as educational materials, and adapted for animation and motion picture (Asterix and Obelix vs. Caesar [1999]; Asterix and Obefix: Mission Cleopatra [2002], starring Christian Clavier as Asterix and Gerard Depardieu as Qbefix). After an apologetic preface, Hirtius, Caesar’s general, opens with a verbal reference to books one and seven of the Gallic War: “The whole of Gaul was defeated.” (omni Gallia devictd) (Gallic War, 8.1; trans. Their unlikely hero is a very small Gallic man named Asterix, who is accompanied by his faithful companion, an oversized man named Obelix, and his pet hound, Dogmatix. 53973 Commentaries on the Gallic War Julius Caesar and Aulus Hirtius W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. They are ironic in view of the tumultuous events then happening in Rome (Caesar notes that he had learned of the murder of a leading Roman political figure, Clodius [Gallic War, 7.1]), and the events about to unfold in Gaul itself. ... Gallic War Book I Book II Book III Book IV Book V Book VI Book VII Book VIII. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). It is perhaps an appropriate, if less than satisfying, conclusion. : Harvard University Press, 1987. Caésar’s style in the Commentaries is smooth and concise. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. Encyclopedia.com. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. Thus when they fight they have the mobility for cavalry and the staying power of infantry; and with daily training and practice they have become so efficient that even on steep slopes they can control their horses at full gallop, check and turn them in a moment, run along the pole, stand on the yoke and get back into the chariot with incredible speed, (Gallic War 433; trans. Trans. His movement inland is temporarily checked when news arrives that a storm has destroyed 40 ships. The cursus honorum, or “ladder of offices,” was the means by which a Roman official, or magistrate, advanced politically. Fortunately for Rome the tribes moved westward toward Switzerland. Praetor At the time of the Gallic War, Rome elected eight praetors a year. He is the diplomat, general, warrior. Also his reports always portray the enemy as the aggressor, even when his troops plunder Gallic lands or he sells a population into slavery. He encourages his Roman audience to believe in his actions and in himself. . He tried to grant Caesar the special privilege of being eligible to stand for the consulship in absentia so that when he finished his Gallic command he could step directly from one office to the next without a year’s interlude that would have left him open to prosecution. Ingenious storylines paint a caricatured portrait of overbearing and stuffy Romans and of boorish and guileless Gauls. This is clearly the best available audio download of Caesar's Gallic War Commentaries. When they join forces with Vercingetorix, he turns to the Germanic peoples for aid. Veyne, Paul, ed. In office for 18 months, they took the census, controlled public morals, and had the right to expel senators from the Senate. Generally they succeed in throwing the ranks of their opponents into confusion just with the terror caused by their galloping horses and the din of their wheels. A law of 180 bce, the lex Villia Annalis, prescribed a fixed order in which magistracies had to be held and also prescribed minimum age limits for each office, The conventional order was quaestor (28), praetor (39), consul (42), and potentially censor (which could only be held after the consulship), al-though a magistrate could also hold the tribunate or aedileship (the former traditionally held before, and the latter after the quaestorship). The Latin title, literally Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. The final sections shift the focus to the challenges to Caesar’s authority at Rome. The resultant urban problems led to genuine attempts at political and social reforms (in 133 and 123-122 bce), aimed at relieving the plight of Rome’s poorer classes. Rather the Commentaries on the Gallic War should be regarded as a key to understanding the sophisticated linguistic, rhetorical, and historical processes of one of ancient Rome’s most dynamic politicians and foremost thinkers. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. McDevitte and W.S. Trans. The subject matter provided raw material for Livy’s From the Founding of the City, for Plutarch’s Parallel Lives, and for Suetonius’ The Lives of The Twelve Caesars (all also in Classical Literature and Its Times). For they are unadorned, direct and graceful, stripped of every oratorical ornament as though divested of clothing” (Cicero, Brutus, chapter 292). By the time of the Gallic War, Rome had decreed that a ten-year interval was necessary between the holdings of the same office. Nice) suspends the narrative indefinitely on the brink of civil war. Over one-third of the book is then taken up with a lengthy digression on the differences between the societies of Gaul and 1. Censor Two censors were elected every five years from among the ex-consuls. His troops’ first action is against … Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war. Suetonius. Populares These senators used the people to achieve their political aims and objectives, and were often seen as a more democratic and radical groúp. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. His actions resulted eventually in the annexation of the Near East and an ingenious settlement that took ac-count of the complex geographical and political factors of the region. Unable to compete, they quit their holdings and flocked to Rome with other dispossessed citizens. Those who are left at home have to support the men in the army as well as themselves, and the next year take their turn of service, while the others stay at home. S. A. Handford). But his measures were short-lived as the actions of certain nobles undermined his constitutional reforms. D. McLintock. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. In the two decades that followed, Pompey used his military successes against Rome’s enemies to persuade the Senate to give him a consulship and further commands. The commentarius was a genre that had its origins in the Greek hypomemnata (or ‘memoranda’), such as public legal records and accounting expenses, or private notes for speeches and personal diaries. Ed. . Galba shows initiative and the Romans counterattack from the gates of the camp: It was a complete reversal of fortune: the Gauls who had counted on capturing the camp were surrounded and cut off. In practice, power rested in the hands of a small landowning minority who controlled the Senate. Lives of the Twelve Caesars. He had operated outside the limits of his provinces without senatorial authority and, by rights, should have been prosecuted. Here Caesar confronts the first threat to his command when his inexperienced military tribunes and other high officials search for reasons to avoid combat. In the centuries that followed, Celtic tribes continued to encroach on Italian territory and to offer aid to Rome’s enemies. An interest in grammar and style resulted in On Analogy, a lost work in which Caesar advocated the lucid, pristine style used in his two surviving historical works: Commentaries on the Gallic War and Commentaries on the Civil War. He also showed himself to be a rising star in the Roman law courts. To add insult to injury, in 51 bce, one of the consuls, M. Marcellus, publicly flogged a senator from Novum Comum (a town in Gaul) to demonstrate that the town did not enjoy Roman citizenship. They capture some Roman officials and demand the return of their own hostages. They are fickle and undetermined, rash and frenzied, greedy and lazy. Thereafter, he occupied a series of political offices: military tribune in 72 bce, quaestor in Spain in 69 bce, aedile in 65 bce. They justify his conquests by encouraging the reader to draw comparisons between Roman ideals of nationhood and the ways of these foreign nations. Later on, in 68 bce Caesar was to win acclaim as the new champion of the populares when he proudly displayed images of Marius at his aunt’s funeral. The year-by-year publication of the Gallic War was necessary to justify Caesar’s actions to his adoring public and to promote his calculated subjugation of areas outside Roman control. After repulsing the enemy, Galba retires to the Roman province, where he winters amid the Allobroges. Marcus Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. by Julius Caesar. C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum [Caius Julius Caesar, Commentaries on His Achievements]. Later, as tribune of the people, he passed a measure limiting the influence of the nobility at elections. There ensues a battle in which Caesar’s legions rout the army of Ariovistus. As Lindsay Hall remarks: He ponders things, acts in accordance with pre-arranged plans or principled habit, explains his reasons for strategic or tactical decisions and his other consilia or policies; he…anticipate [s] political or military movements on the part of potential enemies, or the results of actions that have come to an end; he regularly foresees … eventualities, or…carefully excuses failure to do so. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Germanic peoples and Celtic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Ancient and modern readers would be hard pressed to find a purer example of historical writing that is tailored to the views and desires of its central figure than Caesar’s Gallic War. Nice). Six years later, after being displayed in Caesar’s triumph, he was executed. Fearing the approach of winter, Caesar departs for Gaul. In addition to the influences of genres, one can detect the impact of Caesar’s teachers, the orator Apollonius Molon of Rhodes, and the grammarian Antonius Gnipho. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. : Harvard University Press, 1962. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. Pollio believed that Caesar gave a false account, either purposely or because of a faulty memory (Suetonius, Caesar 56.4). Of the forces that had taken part in the attack—known to number over 30,000—more than a third were killed; the rest fled in terror and were not allowed to halt even on the mountain heights. Moving swiftly, Caesar prevents them from crossing the Rhine River. In the account and through the account, Caesar emerges as a model of Roman virtue par excellence. When his slave brings word to Caesar, Caesar advances swiftly to break the blockade of Cicero’s camp. Asterix and the Secret Weapon. Later he demonstrated how easy it was to pervert the traditional Republican This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. In the modern world, Caesar’s accomplishments have rarely gripped the popular imagination. Tribune of the People (tribunus plebis) A one-year position held by 10 men, charged with Despite the use of the third person for his account, Caesar himself is ever present. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. When Aulus Hirtius remarked in his preface to book eight that “Caesar possessed not only the greatest skill and elegance in writing, but also the surest ability to ex-plain his own plans” (Gallic War 8, Preface, section 7; trans. By the end of the year Gaul is at peace, and Caesar is rewarded an unprecedented honor—a 15-day period of thanksgiving to the immortal gods. LibriVox recording of Commentaries on the Gallic War, by Gaius Julius Caesar. The leading rebel, Vercingetorix, submits nobly to Caesar. In eighteenth-century France, the value of the Commentaries as a military handbook was not lost on Napoleon Bonaparte, who wanted the work to be part of the education of every general and wrote his own Summary of the Wars of Caesar (Precis des Guerres de Cesar, 1836). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. Unnerved by the unusual spectacle of charioteers in Britain and by the British weather, the Romans survive an ambush and an attack on their camp. With typical celeritas, or speed, Caesar marches against the German tribes, defeating them in two separate engagements. For not long after the conquest of Gaul, the unusual antics of the essedarii made them a regular feature m the Roman amphitheater. In ancient Rome, history was above all a rhetorical and literary genre. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help, Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0, Siege_of_the_stronghold_of_the_Aduatuci.jpg, Octodurus_and_the_surrounding_territory.jpg, The_Veneti_and_neighboring_coast_region.jpg, Terms of Service (last updated 12/31/2014). The presence of Marius’s army veterans in the forum, Rome’s civic and commercial center, effectively silenced any opposition. https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, "Commentaries on the Gallic War Category: Text: EBook-No. In 107 bce his army was defeated and forced to march under the yoke as if they were oxen, a terrible humiliation. Other details dealing with the battle itself are equally important. Celtic chieftain Vercingetorix (c. 75 BC-c. 46 BC) battled valiantly to keep the Roman army from overrunning the territory of Gaul, as…, Iceni Queen Boudicca (died 61) ruled over a small tribe of Celts who challenged the colonization plans of the Roman Empire in England. Caesar’s fearless style of generalship, marked by his famed celeritas (speed) was as impressive as his oratory. O. Seel. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. In general, commentarii were not for publication, but were intended as raw material for the historian. The highest offices, praetors and consuls, had the right to wage war, to punish citizens, and to impose the death penalty. London: Orion, 2002. The Romans launch simultaneous attacks against the restless northern peoples—the Menapii, Aduatuci, and the Treveri. _____. With the armies settled in winter quarters, Caesar’s lieutenant Servius Galba attempts to open up a secure trade route across the Alps. In the last century or so of Republican life in Rome, “it mattered who was first and who was second” (Wiseman, p. 7). Caesar agrees to spare the people but only if they lay down their weapons. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. The influence of Marius cannot be overestimated, either on Roman politics in the first century bce or on the young Caesar. It was even harder for the lower classes and equestrians (businessmen with property worth at least 400,000 sesterces—Roman coins) who had neither the necessary dignitas nor auctoritas, although from time to time the nobles were willing to concede the consulship to a new man, or novus homo, who showed promise. The German historian Theodor Mommsen, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902, regarded Caesar as the only creative genius produced by Rome and the last produced by the ancient world. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. Book 8 was written by Aulus Hirtius, after Caesar's death. Julius Caesar himself was one. This complete edition of Caesar's Commentaries contains all eight of Caesar's books on the Gallic War as well as all three of his books on the Civil War masterfully translated into English by W. A. MacDevitt. However, the date of retrieval is often important. A politician’s self-worth, or dignitas, was closely associated with the glory (gloria) and honor (honos) he attained from military accomplishments and political offices. On returning to Rome, Caesar was elected to the college of pontiffs (a priesthood with duties ranging from overseeing state sacrifices to serving as an advisory body on sacred law). To this was soon added Farther Gaul (Transalpine Gaul). After he was elected consul, Marius promptly en-rolled in his army numbers of the urban proletariat, the capite censi, those without the necessary property qualification. In a remarkable speech, he shames the remainder of the army into action. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … Rome annexed Nearer Gaul, but matters came to a head in the late second century bce, when two German tribes, the Cimbri and the Teutones, migrated there. London: HarperCollins, 1995. In 105 bce at Arausio (modern Orange, France) the combined armies of the Cimbri and Teutones decisively routed the Roman legions of the proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Cnaeus Mallius with the reported loss of 80,000 men. The narrative paints Vercingetorix as a suitably intelligent and resourceful opponent to the Roman commander. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. On hearing the news of it, their old men … sent envoys to Caesar and surrendered.... Caesar, wishing to let it be seen that he showed mercy to the unfortunate suppliants, took great care to protect them from harm, confirmed them in possession of their territories and towns, and commanded their neighbours to refrain from injuring their persons or property. The Usipetes and the Tencteri cross into Gaul under pressure from the Suebi, who are the largest and most warlike of the German nations. An additional book by Caesar’s general, Aulus Hirtius (consul 43 bce), relates events of 51 and 50 bce. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23. After their year of office in Rome, praetors and consuls sometimes governed outside Rome in a province, where they were known as propraetors or proconsuls. A request that Caesar’s command in Gaul be extended from 51 through 49 bce was rejected. Once there, he sends his men against the Morin and Kenai, who have renewed hostilities. Gaul is entirely occupied by the Romans. After several years of civil war from which Caesar emerged victorious, in 44 bce he had himself declared dictator in perpetuum (dictator for life), which demonstrated the obvious: the Republican system of government no longer worked. Asinius Pollio, who had fought with Caesar, thought they had been composed carelessly and with too little regard to the truth. His platform rested on the inability of nobles in the Senate to find either a diplomatic or military solution to the conflict in Numidia. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Such military and civic distinctions bestowed auctoritas, an authority that entailed the respectful admiration of one’s contemporaries. The full title on surviving manuscripts of Caesar’s single, continuing set of accounts on the Gallic and Civil Wars is C. lulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum (The Commentaries of C. Julius Caesar on His Achievements). Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1957. Caesar. Gaius Julius Caesar Commentaries on the Gallic War translated by W.A. Pompey was granted special authority to deal with the crisis. Cassivellaunus attempts to divert Caesar’s attention by urging tribes in Kent to at-tack Caesar’s naval camp. After amassing fresh troops to counter the threat of war, Caesar finds him-self occupied in the North, again in Menapian territory. No doubt you’ve heard Winston Churchill’s famous quote that “History is written by the victors,” as was the case with the Gallic Wars. Beginnings of books are often marked off with threats to the peace of Gaul, which continue to justify Caesar’s presence in the territory. The Nervii then besiege the camp of Quintus Cicero. Events in History at the Time of the Commentaries. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … A dictatorship was a temporary six-month appointment made by the Senate only during times of war. Caesar compares and contrasts the civilized ways of Rome to the barbarism of those he conquers. But the most obvious inspiration is the dictator Sulla’s lost Commentarii rerum gestarum, on his life and achievements. He takes care to mention individual officers, centurions, and even slaves. Trans. Make amends to the Romans by killing me or surrender me alive as you think best.”, (Gallic War, 7.89; trans. Encyclopedia.com. Beginning with 58 bce, each book narrates one year of campaigning. Caesar also recovers the loyalty of the Aedui and of the Arverni, stations Roman officials and troops throughout Gaul, and personally winters at Bibracte. Julius Caesar wrote commentaries on the wars he fought in Gaul between 58 and 52 B.C., in seven books one for each year. In 109 bce the Romans sent out a new army under the consul M. lunius Silanus to de-fend the new Roman province of Farther Gaul. But the Roman world was not yet ready for a monarch. Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War Literally Translated Default Title - $8.00 USD Regular price $8.00 Quantity Add to Cart Translated by Edward Brooks, Jr. David McKay, 1895. “As a whole Gaul is divided into three parts…” (Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres…) (Caesar, C. lulii Caesaris Com-mentarii rerum gestarum, book 1, chapter 1; trans. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. The Battle for Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War]. The standard position is that Caesar’s Commentaries on the Gallic War were a synthesis of his earlier campaign reports, and that he wrote and published them after the successful completion of business in Gaul in 52-51 bce. They also oversaw markets and weights and measures as well as public festivals and games. Suddenly a revolt breaks out incited by a member of the Treveri tribe, a Gallic tribe that provided Caesar with cavalry. They were joined on their march by another tribe known as the Tigurini. Anthea Bell and Derek Hockridge. With the help of the tribunes of the people, he distributed cheap grain to the poor and guaranteed land to his veteran troops. constitution when he had himself declared dictator for the purpose of rewriting the constitution. ." In other arenas his lieutenants quell some unruly tribes, including rebels in the territory of Aquitania (in today’s southwest France). Very enjoyable audio program on Julius Caesar. His back is not long turned before the Veneti, a tribe of seafarers, reveal themselves to be unwilling subjects. In Caesar’s time the ancient region of Gaul (roughly equivalent to France, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) was inhabited by disparate nations, or tribal groups. In 78 bce Pompey marched against Lepidus and in 77 bce demanded the power of proconsul to fight in Spain against the rebellious general Sertorius. Nice). In A History of Private Life. A new army and a new general, L. Cassius Longinus, advanced against the Tigurini. At the end of the year the triumvirs conspired to award Caesar a five-year governorship of some Roman provinces in Europe—Illyricum and Nearer Gaul (or Cisalpine Gaul, Gaul on this side of the Alps). Report of the victory causes the rebellious Treveri to call off another planned attack, but they continue to incite rebellion and taunt the Romans. Cicero, Marcus Tullius. He ends the year harassing the enemy, searching for Ambiorix, chief of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe, and conducting an enquiry into a conspiracy by two Gallic tribes (the Senones and Carnutes). In 79 bce he won the Civic Crown (a military decoration of oak leaves woven into the shape of a crown) for saving the life of a Roman citizen, an indication of greater things to come. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. And life is not easy for the Roman legionaries who garrison the fortified camps of Totorum, Aquarium, Laudanum and Compendium …. Caesar hastens back to the province. 51586 Commentaries on the Gallic War — Book 1 Julius Caesar. The coalition was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar’s daughter, Julia. It is said that they have a hundred cantons, each of which provides annually a thousand armed men for service in foreign wars. Out of every eight praetors elected each year, only two could become consuls, and every year there were more ex-praetors competing for those top two positions. As a historical document, the Commentaries on the Gallic War remain enormously valuable as the memoir of a Roman commander in provinces of the empire. His brief speech to his own people is a moving demonstration of self-sacrifice: The next day Vercingetorix addressed an assembly. Caesar’s work ends on the positive and self-congratulatory note: “When these messages were made known at Rome a public thanks-giving of twenty days was granted” (Gallic War, 7.90; trans. However, Caesar had an agenda he wished to promote. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. The memoirs of P. Rutilius Rufus, the autobiography of M. Aemilius Scaurus, or Cicero’s account of his consulship are worthy predecessors to Caesar’s commentaries. “I did not undertake the war,” he said, “for private ends, but in the cause of national liberty. Power became ever more polarized in the hands of Caesar and Pompey. The former advocated an austere style of oratory. In his youth he composed the poem Praises of Hercules, a tragedy called Oedipus, and a collection of sayings (apophthegms). He avoids coining new words and standardizes the use of vocabulary and grammatical structures. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. Undoubtedly Caesar’s skill as an orator was a powerful factor in his election in 63 bce to pontifex maximus, head of the college of pontiffs. Many had to sell them to wealthier landowners to avoid bankruptcy. It was customary for Romans to celebrate the resgestae (“things done”) of their ancestors in speeches of praise at funerals and in funerary inscriptions. London: Routledge, 1996. 16 Oct. 2020 . Twice Caesar had been granted unprecedented periods of public thanksgiving and prayers to the gods. More generally, Caesar’s descriptions of the Celtic tribes helped shape later Roman views of the “barbarian,” including those of historians, such as Tacitus, Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius. 1.25 circumvenere: we follow Seel and others in reading circumvenire There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also simply Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. At Rome the form developed in the writings of the priestly colleges or of the leading magistrates, in senatorial dispatches and reports, and in the diaries of army generals and provincial governors. They maintained the streets of Rome, regulated traffic and the city water supply, and were responsible for the upkeep of public buildings. Each successive generation could augment the auctoritas earned by their ancestors and increase their own dignitas through the position, status, and wealth of their family. These officials had aides called lictors, who carried bundles of rods, known as fasces (for flogging) and (when the official was a consul) also carried axes (for executions). Appointed governor of Rome’s ancient provinces of Gaul and Illyricum, Julius Caesar battles the tribes of Gaul, Germany, and Britain. "De Bello Gallico" and Other Commentaries Contents: The war in Gaul -- The civil war. A. Wiseman and P. Wiseman. As time passed, generals and politicians recognized that by publishing their commentarii or res gestae they could justify their actions and promote themselves in Rome. Bohn. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. At the river Allia, on July 18, probably in 390 bce, a notorious “black” day (dies nefastus) in the Roman calendar, the Senones inflicted a crushing defeat on Rome’s legions and then sacked the city of Rome, destroying houses, temples, and public records. This gave some relief to the Romans, ever mindful that the Gauls had once sacked Rome. When they threaten two Gallic tribes—the Aedui and Allobroges—that are Roman allies, Caesar pursues the Helvetii to the town of Bibracte, where his troops defeat them. Cambridge, Mass. It the violent anticlimax to more than a century of conflict between Rome…, Vercingetorix For the first time the Roman army no longer owed allegiance to the state but to the general who could provide for them. The praetor urbanus (city praetor) was the supreme civil judge of Rome. Despite setbacks, Caesar establishes Roman dominion over the area that is modern-day France and the low countries (Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg). See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive, Uploaded by Caesar withdraws to settle a dynastic squabble among the Aedui people. Wiseman, T. P., ed. Swansea: Duckworth and the Classical Press of Wales, 1998. The Commentaries on the Gallic War had a wide-spread impact on later ancient biographers and historians. They commanded the army, conducted the chief elections, presided over the Senate, and implemented Senate decisions. Trans. Nonetheless, there are traces of a tradition hostile to the content of Caesar’s Commentaries. The Gallic War, published on the eve of the civil war which led to the end of the Roman Republic, is an autobiographical account written by one of the most famous figures of European history. Cicero’s band, foraging away from the camp, is caught off guard. Trans. As Caesar’s opponents knew very well, his campaigns in Gaul, Britain, and Germany were illegal. As appropriate, Caesar metes out pardon or punishment. The forces of the Eburones and Nervii disperse. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. The first words of Caesar’s climactic seventh book: Quieta Gallia (”Peaceful Gaul”) could not have been more precisely chosen. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Yet in the struggle for personal auctoritas, it became clear that an ambitious politician could use the people to his advantage. A History of Rome. Aulus Hirtius, published in the mid-40s bce. The “mutiny” spreads and Caesar is compelled to call a council of war. Julius Caesar as Artful Reporter. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Reports of incursions by two Germanic peoples (the Harudes and the Suebi) inspire Caesar to march north to prevent Ariovistus from capturing a major town of Gaul—Vesontio. Gallic Wars, (58–50 bce), campaigns in which the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar conquered Gaul. Now late in the summer, Caesar directs his attention toward Britain. The peace of just a few weeks earlier is shattered by an unexpected onslaught on Galba’s camp. (October 16, 2020). Parenti, M. The Assassination of Julius Caesar: A People’s History of Ancient Rome. Roman Political Life 90 BC-AD 69. Such information is important if one is to grasp the large scale of these long-ago battles. In this passage, Caesar, who tended to avoid “the unusual word as a sailor avoids a rock,” captures their novelty by his introduction of the nouns essedum (”chariot”) and essadarius (“charioteer”) into the Latin language. "Commentaries on the Gallic War 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10 - 11 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 19 - 20 - 21 - 22 - 23 - 24 - 25 - 26 - 27 - 28 - 29 - 30 - 31 - 32 - 33 - 34 - 35 - 36 - 37 - 38 - 39 - 40 - 41 - 42 - 43 - 44 - 45 - 46 - 47 - 48 - 49 - 50 - 51 - 52 - 53 - 54. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. In 50 bce, the question of a successor A small group of powerful senators, however, continued to provoke a rift. The praetors oversaw the permanent law courts. Caesar’s men defend their nation with discipline, hard work, and traditional virtue. In the territory of the Eburones, Caesar sets up camp, appointing Cicero to guard the baggage. None understood this more than Caesar’s uncle, Gaius Marius. Commentaries on individual books of the Gallic War are available, and sev- eral new commentaries are appearing on the selections from the Gallic War that were chosen for the Advanced Placement Exam in Latin (introduced in spring 2013), but nothing that presents multiple books in … The extent to which Caesar may have exceeded the truth of history should be considered in relation not just to the historical events or circumstances that shaped the work. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. Consul The two annually elected chief magistrates of Rome. A, Wiseman and P. Wiseman). Brutus. In 56 bce, assuming peace, Caesar heads for Illyricum. Four times he recalls their annihilation of the Roman army of L. Cassius Longinus in 107 bce. The praetor peregrinus (alien praetor) dealt with lawsuits involving foreigners. For example, Caesar claims that the Helvetii threaten the Roman province and promote anti-Roman sentiment. S. A. Handford. new Roman province and to encourage another Germanic group, the Ubii, to resist the Sheba. Instead of a conventional prologue, Caesar begins with a description of Gaul and its inhabitants. A cohort numbers about 360 men and there are ten cohorts to a legion; in the Gallic War a legion totaled about 3,600 men. Cassivellaunus promises hostages and a yearly tribute, after which Caesar returns to Gaul and settles his troops in winter quarters. Meanwhile, on the Atlantic coast, Publius Crassus, the son of the triumvir, secures the submission of the maritime tribes. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. Although the Gauls have some degree of a social class structure, they fight one another and the Germans. The Gallic War (58-51 B.C.) Caesar arrives, resplendent in the scarlet cloak of a general (Gallic War, 7.88), and ends the resistance of the Gallic tribes. Citizens often returned home to find their land allotments in ruin. The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. The Gallic War is not only history, but was also a tool used to make history. Although there have been a plethora of excellent TV and film adaptations of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, there have been few that deal with the historical Caesar, Occasionally Caesar has been the subject of the historical novel, most notably in the recent works of Colleen McCullough, Allen Massie, or Steven Saylor but none have achieved anything similar to the phenomenal success of the comic book series created by René Goscinny and Albert Uderzo. Well, not entirely…One small village of the indomitable Gauls still holds out against the invaders. Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES. Introduction takes up 9 minutes. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting local armies in Gaul that opposed Roman domination. In 63 bce, a Gallic tribe, the Allobroges, who had long been faithful to the Roman cause, rebelled when their appeal for debt relief fell on deaf ears. He studied rhetoric and philosophy in Rhodes, after a brief delay en route when he was captured by pirates. The final word of the incomplete manuscript “contendit…” (He strove …) (Gallic War, 8.55; trans. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Asterix’s small village fends off the Roman invaders with a little help from a magic potion prepared by a Druid named Getafix. Caesar's Commentaries On The Gallic War: From The Commencement Of The Same To The End Of His Second Expedition Into Britain: Accompanied With A Latin ... With English Notes, Explanatory And Critical: Caesar, Julius: Amazon.com.tr Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB. Cicero, the foremost rhetorician of the era, wrote in 46 bce: “They [the Commentaries] are greatly to be approved. To make matters worse, there was open gang warfare between their supporters in the streets of Rome, which pre-vented elections being held for 52 bce. According to his contemporary, the famous orator Cicero, Caesar spoke and wrote on a daily basis. Original Latin title: "Commentarii de Bello Gallico", sometimes abbreviated as "Bell. Though an able orator, Caesar understood that true power at Rome was possible only through military success and a supportive army. World Literature and Its Times: Profiles of Notable Literary Works and the Historic Events That Influenced Them. This new translation reflects the purity of Caesar's Latin while preserving the pace and flow of his momentous narrative of the conquest of Gaul and the first Roman invasions of Britain and Germany. His book Commentarii de Bello Gallico (Commentaries on the Gallic War, often called The Conquest of Gaul), was a propaganda piece (written in 53 BCE) justifying his military and political actions during a nine year campaign in Gaul (and a short jaunt into Britain). After Caesar’s assassination, it would take another 14 years of civil war for the emergence of an autocrat who was capable of unifying the Senate and the people of Rome. In 56 bce Caesar’s command in Gaul was extended for another five years, but the peace did not last long. The two works arise out of a chaotic period of self-styled military rulers, growing corruption of governmental processes, gang warfare, and civil war. The so-called popularis politician exploited the needs of the people to serve his own self-interested ends. ." in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Each office bestowed a certain amount of potestas (political authority) or imperium (military authority). Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. In 54 Julia died and in 53 Crassus was killed in Parthia, seeking military glory. Caesar presents real or imagined threats to ex-plain away his intervention in Gaul. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. For a modern audience the enduring reputation of Gaius Julius Caesar (100-44 bce) is owed partly to his infamous portrayal in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar and partly to his political and military domination of the Roman world during the 50s and 40s bce. a German chieftain named Ariovistus (chapters 30-59). Subject: Rome -- History -- Civil War, 49-48 B.C. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. The first blow is struck by Ambiorix, chieftain of the Eburones, a Belgic tribe. A. There he receives the surrender of the Trinobantes and other tribes and attacks the stronghold of Cassivellaunus. The book ends laconically: “After this deed Caesar found Gaul somewhat quieter” (Commentarii rerum gestarum, 5.58; trans. Aedile Each year four aediles were elected. Exposing himself to the same risks as his troops, he won their confidence and trust. Chariots had not been encountered by a Roman army in over 150 years. was the conflict in which Julius Caesar first emerged as a great military leader, after an earlier career as an impoverished populist politician. In 113 bce they roundly defeated the Roman consul Cnaeus Papirius Carbo at Noricum (in Nearer Gaul). In the years that followed Marius’s victory, the inhabitants of Farther Gaul were heavily taxed and closely monitored. The Roman Army B. Britain Indexes Maps And Plans A. Quaestor Financial and administrative officials, the 20 quaestors at the time of the Gallic War maintained public records and oversaw the treasury. Though the Britons keep bothering his men on the march, Caesar eventually reaches the Thames. The translation is based on W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn (1869). Despite their success, the Britons petition for peace and promise to return hostages. Leaving his lieutenant Titus Labienus in winter quarters among the Sequani, Caesar returns to Nearer Gaul to conduct the administrative duties of a governor. Caesar grew up during the bloody struggle between Sulla and Marius in the 80s bce. was a Roman general and politician who overthrew the Roman Republic and established the rule of the emperors. defending the legal interests and property of plebeians (common people). After Caesar’s lieutenant Labienus routs the Treveri, his force and Caesar’s set out once more for Germany. The Romans had a deep-rooted fear of Celtic tribes because of past history. A. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting … The ideal form focused on the doubtful and varying fortunes of an outstanding individual and would contain contrasting emotions of surprise and suspense, joy and distress, hope and fear. His success as an orator led to political and social advancements, which by the late 60s bce had placed him among the most important men in the state. They acted as paymasters to generals on campaign and supervised the sale of war booty. to Caesar became a pressing issue. During the second century bce the traditional systems of the Roman Republic began to fracture in the face of protracted foreign wars, an influx of foreign slaves, and extraordinary opportunities for wealth and prestige to be amassed by generals and their legates (military commanders). Caesar orders the construction of new ships to facilitate a full-scale invasion of Britain. The tide is turned by the arrival of Rome’s Tenth Legion and the Romans are victorious. Julius Caesar wrote in compelling and no non-sense pros. In light of a reported conspiracy by the Belgae, a group of tribes in North-eastern Gaul, Caesar raises two new legions and marches on their territory. First they drive in all directions hurling spears. The leading citizens of Rome could hold a number of political positions as follows, from highest to lowest: Dictator A six-month (or shorter) appointment held by one Roman citizen. His power superseded all other magistrates in a military (and occasionally domestic) crisis. In 102 and 101 bce, under the command of Marius, the Romans defeated first the Teutones and then the Cimbri. In fact, much of what we know about them comes directly from Julius Caesar himself, in his works (with the exception of the last volume) entitled Commentarii de Bello Gallico, or Commentaries on the Gallic War. on November 22, 2012. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Election to the office of praetor followed. In the subsequent sections Caesar and his legates reduce the remnants of Gallic resistance. Tribunes could veto Senate laws, and the election and actions of magistrates. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Sulla subsequently tried to shore up the power of the optimates (those who believed in the traditional authority of the Senate) and to prevent popular agitation by muzzling the tribunes of the people. Caesar's books were intended as an aid for future historians - that's why they are officially called Commentaries, and not History of the Gallic War - but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. In 108 bce Marius campaigned for the consulship of 107 bce. Situated in 50 bce, each book begins as follows: The year is 50 B.C. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Caesar wrote the commentaries on the Gallic War for two main reasons: 1) to put in writing the authoritative account of a very important period in Roman history 2) to justify to the Roman people his military actions in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. The Roman winter camps are assaulted by the Gauls. All of this was enhanced by Caesar’s own reports to the Senate and his Commentaries on the Gallic War, which kept the Roman people abreast of his latest conquests. Boston: David R. Godine, 1980. Leipzig: Teubner, 1968. Their complex systems of patronage and factional alliances allowed them to influence public assemblies, fix elections, and control access to the magistracies (political offices). The climax of the work is the siege of Alesia. A conflict that began with an attempt to preserve stability on the borders of the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul soon turned into a war … They make their way through the squadrons of their own cavalry, then jump down from their chariots and fight on foot, Meanwhile the chariot-drivers withdraw a little way from the fighting and position the chariots in such a way that if their masters are hard pressed by the enemy’s numbers, they have an easy means of retreat to their own lines. Caesar's Commentaries are an outstanding account of extraordinary events by one of the most exceptional men in the history of the world. And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. _____The Conquest of Gaul [Commentaries on the Gallic War] Trans. In the second part of the book Caesar responds to a request from the tribes of Gaul for aid against Nice). Mommsen, Theodor. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Meanwhile, the yearly reports from Gaul and Britain were adding to Caesar’s growing popularity. When this attack fails, the Britons sue for peace. With winter approaching, Caesar plunders territory of two Belgic peoples in the North—the Morini and the Menapii. Generally, though, Caesar sets up a framework of Roman versus barbarian, portraying the region as a threat to the survival of Roman civilization itself. Cambridge, Mass. A few years later, when the Senate added Farther Gaul to Nearer Gaul as one of Caesar’s territories, he redirected his attention toward the unruly tribes of Gaul. The latter. Bibliography Appendices A. His nobility is apparent from the beginning of book seven to the moment that he surrenders willingly to the decision of his own people and to Caesar. They now intended for their works to be publicly disseminated. — The opening line, immortalised in Latin language classes. Vercingetorix was given over to Caesar. In the absence of Caesar, the cavalry of a west Germanic group, the Sugambri, attack Cicero’s camp. A. Commentaries on the Gallic War is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Vol. The destruction of Carthage in 146 bce ended the Third Punic War (149–146). Only through instances of individual valor do the Romans retain the camp. It is clear why the Romans read this so eagerly, and why it helped his popularity in the home front. As a young man, Julius Caesar served briefly in Asia between 80 and 78 bce before returning to Rome to make a name for himself in the law courts. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. After 18 days of maneuvers and raids, his point made, Caesar withdraws to Gaul. Clad in the bloodred cloak he usually wore “as his distinguishing mark of battle,” Caesar led his troops to victories throughout the province, his major triumph being the defeat of the Gallic army led by When they began, Rome had nearly completed the conquest of Italy, while Carthage cont…, Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder In Roman politics, alliances were always unstable because of external pressures and wavering ambitions, and this three-way coalition was no different. At the time, Sulla earned the dubious distinction of being the first Roman citizen to march an army on the city of Rome. Meier, Christian. Caesar’s arrival soon after revives morale. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (variously translated into English as Commentaries on the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, or simply The Gallic War) is the firsthand account of Julius Caesar 's campaigns in Gaul (modern-day France), Germany, and Britain between 59 and 51 BC. Uderzo, Albert. The books are further subdivided into chapters, or subsections. Language: English: LoC Class: PA: Language and Literatures: Classical Languages and Literature: Subject: Gaul -- History -- Gallic Wars, 58-51 B.C. ), known as Cato the Elder and Cato the Censor, was a Roman soldier, statesman, orator…, Commerce Department Intelligence and Security Responsibilities, United States, Commercial Production: Interaction Among Peoples, Commercial Production: Methods of Exchange, Commercial Production: Occupations and Work Habits, https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/culture-magazines/commentaries-gallic-war, The Rise of Rome (3rd century bce to 2nd century ce, Communication, Transportation, and Exploration: Overview, Divide and Rule: The Legacy of Roman Imperialism. As with Caesar’s exaggerated claims, it is not true. The era saw the growth of enormous estates (the infamous latifundid), whose rise came at the expense of the smaller landowners. A. Goldhammer. Main writing starts at 10:03 mark. . After he fails to relieve the town of Avaricum (today’s Bourges), it falls to Caesar, whose troops have besieged it. had a special interest in word forms. The Gallic Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [106k] Book 2 [60k] Book 3 [53k] Book 4 [64k] Book 5 [98k] Book 6 [77k] Book 7 [153k] Book 8 [87k] Download: A 486k text-only version is … "Commentaries on the Gallic War Bradley, P. Ancient Rome: Using Evidence. Annual reports by Julius Caesar of his campaigns in Gaul and Britain between 58 and 52 bce, published in Latin in the 50s bce, plus a supplement for 51 and 50 bce by Caesar’s genera! In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. Nice), he acknowledges that Caesar had exceeded the limits of his command. It was impossible for Caesar to have fully falsified his account since it would have been competing with his own reports to the Senate, with his correspondence and the letters of his officers to Rome, and with other literary compositions by the men under his command. In Caesar’s day, senators typically belonged to one of two groups: Optimates These senators followed the traditional senatorial routes to authority and political success, and were often seen as a less democratic and more conservative group. Caesar’s fellow Romans understood that a considerable factor in his rise to power was his rhetorical and literary talent. Nice). It is perhaps no wonder that just two years later his Roman troops were ready to follow him to the bitterest of encounters—civil war. Harmondsworth, U.K.: Penguin, 1951. Cleverly the authors exaggerate themes of Roman and barbarian found in Caesar’s Commentaries, although in their version the barbarians always have the last word. The annual structure, geographic and ethnographic digressions on the Gauls and Ger-mans, rousing speeches by the Celts and Romans, records of his own and his generals’ achievements, the results of his campaigns—all these suggest the writing of history rather than autobiography. As one historian remarks, “The Senate was a club, and club members decided whether or not a man had the social profile necessary for membership, whether or not he could add to the prestige of the group” (Veyne, p. 95). He advances on the Bellovaci, who surrender themselves to the Romans. Commentarii de Bello Gallico (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War) is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Gall." There are no accounts of the looting of the Gallic sanctuaries, which … From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. In Rome, the people celebrated. During his own lifetime and the century that followed, Caesar’s Commentaries received high praise for their uncomplicated style. Despite a magnificent third triumph, the Senate’s refusal to ratify Pompey’s eastern settlement led him to seek support from equally ambitious nobles. The narrator has obvious familiarity with the work hence rarely misspeaks or mispronounces names or terms. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. S. A. Handford). Welch, Kathryn, and Anton Powell, eds. Not only is the student presented with the com-plete text of over five (of the seven Caesarian) books of the Gallic War, but he or she also encounters a Nice). Like most young noblemen in Rome, Caesar served a military apprenticeship. Exeter: Exeter University Press, 1985. The events in Caesar’s commentaries unfold in chronological order, always by year and sub-divided by summers and winters, resembling the method characteristic of Roman historiography. Just ten days later, a 400-yard Roman-built bridge spans the Rhine. Along with the tribes of Britain, Germany, and the Danube region, these nations were known collectively as the Celts. As one historian suggests, he was “presenting him-self in contemporary terms to his fellow Romans as the greatest and most worthy of them, striving beyond all else to outdo his most significant rival, Pompey the Great” (Welch and Powell, p. ix). When it came to his political affiliations, Caesar was a member of the Populares, a demagogu… On January 10 and 11 of 49 bce, Caesar, his dignitas irreparably slighted, crossed the Rubicon, a stream separating Gaul from Italy. Caesar's Gallic Wars essays chronicle the history of his military engagements during the years 58-51 B.C. Silanus was defeated. Germany. Routing the enemy, he presses forward into the territory of other Belgic peoples. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. A. He portrays the Gauls as deserving to be subjected because they lack Roman qualities. After ordering new ships built, Caesar continues his ad-Vance and encounters Cassivellaunus, lord of the land north of the Thames River. NOOK Book (eBook) $ 0.95. The three allies engineered a consulship for Caesar in 59 bce, during which he oversaw the ratification of Pompey’s eastern settlement and supported the financial interests of Crassus in Egypt and the East.