Favourite answer. 5 Answers. Only a parent bird can do this. I like to go birding just after a heavy rain to enjoy the explosion of foraging activity as birds … What Do Baby Wren Birds Eat. Legal Notices Privacy Policy Contact Us. The mother or father quickly grabs these packages in their beak to fly off with it. Occasionally eats small fish. Feeds primarily on insects. In this video, our parents have five very hungry babies who sleep until they hear the wingbeats of their parents returning to the nest. Depending on their age and species, baby birds may eat every 10 to 20 minutes for 12 to 14 hours per day, consuming a diet rich in insects for sufficient protein to ensure healthy growth. If you are talking about a pet bird they eat seeds, you can get them at a pet store. It provides information on all the birds listed on the ABA bird list. As the babies get older, their begging calls get louder. In migration and winter, found around edges of woods, brushy areas, often near water. In breeding season, typically found near water in woodland or semi-open country. The genus Sayornis that was introduced by the French naturalist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in 1854 with black phoebe (Sayornis nigricans) as the type species. They eat also invertebrates such as grasshoppers, spiders, hair worms from the water, and small fishes and crustaceans in shallow water. Cover the bottom of the cage with soft padding. Do not worry about your scent being on the chick..birds have a very poorly developed sense of smell and will NOT reject a baby that has been touched. If you have a backyard feeder, chances are that a Hawk or two (or more!) I scared him off - with force, but he killed one baby… Examples of accipiter species are Northern Goshawks, Sharp-Shinned Hawks and Cooper’s Hawks. Where birds go and what birds do during a storm depends on the type of bird and the severity of the rains. They feed on insects of all sorts, perching on a branch until they spot a meal to chase down. Well some bird species who have been active all day (called diurnal birds) turn in for the night, just like we do, with every species sleeping or resting in its own way . One of our most familiar eastern flycatchers, the Eastern Phoebe’s raspy “phoebe” call is a frequent sound around yards and farms in spring and summer. Some species do not regurgitate. Common prey include animals like bugs, beetles, bees, wasps, caterpillars, butterflies, moths, crickets, grasshoppers, flies, spiders and often eat seeds, fruit and other plant matter. Haven't found any specific to the Eastern Phoebe, but, many species' behaviors are similar. The parents have a full time job, working almost all day to meet their needs.\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;Another surprising thing is what happens when the food is digested. Membership benefits include one year of Audubon magazine and the latest on birds and their habitats. You can also pick up a piece of food with the tweezers and offer it to the baby bird the way its mother might. What animal is the phoebe? Incubation is by female only, about 16 days. While this may seem counterintuitive to helping baby birds, young birds have precise dietary needs that can't be met with kitchen scraps, birdseed, or other foods. The English Phoebe is a name for the Roman moon-goddess Diana. If the baby bird is a hatchling or a nestling, look for the nest it has fallen from and place it back in the nest. The nest is an open cup made of grass, moss, spider webs, and other material, but usually does not include mud, a material common in the nests of other phoebe species. Insects make up great majority of summer diet; included are many small wasps, bees, beetles, flies, true bugs, grasshoppers, and others. The Black Phoebe is a member of the Tyrannidae family, commonly known as flycatchers. . Bewick's Wrens eat the eggs, larvae, pupae, adult insects and other small invertebrates. The baby birds were hatched in the first nest, and there was a huge pile of baby birds. Mom or Dad was flying around, gathering insects and bringing them to the gaping mouths of their offspring. Bread does not seem to be a good food for baby birds.Is the bird fully feathered or still tiny? Phoebes may have 1-2 broods per year. Teakettle, Cheeseburger . Most weaver birds eat mainly seeds and insects. The same climate change-driven threats that put birds at risk will affect other wildlife and people, too. Hoatzins, on the other hand, feed on leaves. See more Black Phoebes by Corey Finger. I didn't actually witness the transfer. Feeding Habits/What Sparrows Eat. When it comes to birds eating other birds, hawks, falcons or owls are usually the birds that come to mind as typical predators. It has been observed that it can survive on fruit when insects are unavailable. Keep an eye out over a few days and if you absolutely think the mama is gone call your local wildlife rehabilitation center for assistance. Invertebrates such as grasshoppers, airborn spiders, hairworms from the water and even small fishes from shallow water round out their diet. Baby birds eat often and require excellent nutrition to develop normally. has even swooped in and eaten one of your “regulars”. Try doing this and let me know what you see. The niche filled by Black phoebe Lives of North American Birds. They are omnivorous, so they do eat both plants and animals, but their food preferences depend largely upon the specific type. Visit your local Audubon center, join a chapter, or help save birds with your state program. Illustration © David Allen Sibley. Because of the natural food chain, other birds will attack baby birds in the nest and will eat them. . 4-5, sometimes 2-6. Certain mammals also attack baby birds. See nestcup photo below. But you should soak the food in the water in order to make it soft and moist which will help Fledgling bird to eat it easily. Zoom in to see how this species’s current range will shift, expand, and contract under increased global temperatures. Weavers with slender bills eat mostly insects, while the birds with short, thick bills usually eat seeds. Baby birds eat formula sold in exotic bird shops. It seems to be a struggle to get the whole thing in and the babies work at swallowing them for several seconds before they actually disappear. I like to go birding just after a heavy rain to enjoy the explosion of foraging activity as birds make up for lost time. The parent sees immediately what is happening and gets in position as the feces appears. 8 Answers. The National Audubon Society protects birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow, throughout the Americas using science, advocacy, education, and on-the-ground conservation. This can be purchased online or at your local pet supplies store. Let us send you the latest in bird and conservation news. What's happening to those poor phoebe babies is they're being attacked by bird mites. Also eats some spiders, ticks, and millipedes. I thought maybe some of the baby birds would spread into the 2nd nest. Thanks to Audubon Vermont and others, the already green state is becoming even more proactive about preventing forest fragmentation. From what I read this morning do not feed white bread at all, if any bread wholemeal and soak it first. Black phoebe, Sayornis nigricans Diet of the Black phoebe The Black phoebe hawks insects, usually over water or near water. Did you rescue a robin bird? Maybe that is why the parents decided to build an addition. They feed on insects of all sorts, perching on a branch until they spot a meal to chase down. As they chow down on your high-quality seed or suet, we have a wonderful opportunity to photograph them or simply try to identify all of the different species present. Adults typically raise 2 broods per year. This one was seen in St. George, Utah. The Case for Using Real Words to Remember Bird Songs, With Songbird Populations Declining, Vermont Seeks to Keep Its Forests Intact. As the baby bird begins to explore its environment, offer exact Diets in a dish with a separate dish of water available. Weak fluttering flight with shallow wing beats. You could read about it on the internet, the proper way to hand fed a bird. Photo: Howard Arndt/Audubon Photography Awards, Great Egret. Nesting habitats used by the Black phoebe. Population probably increased as buildings and bridges provided many more potential nesting sites. Taxonomy. Sal imagines she is floating down a river on a raft and dreams about her mother, who is asking how it is possible that they are all dead. They are appropriately named as they typically perch close to the ground or over water where they visually … What actually happened: ALL the baby birds transferred into the 2nd nest (which appears to be slightly deeper than the first nest). If you cannot find a nest, get the bird to a local wildlife rehab for it's best chance of survival. 3 diseases you could suffer from by feeding birds If you love to feed the birds, here is a warning for you. For example, a yellow mongoose does not mind eating a bird or a rodent. He can be heard on Birds & Nature from 3-4 p.m. Sunday afternoons on 620 KHB Radio, Pittsburgh, or live online anywhere at www.khbradio.com, or on the Tune-In radio app. A female cowbird will lay her egg in another bird's nest. Feeds on a wide variety of insects including beetles, grasshoppers, crickets, wild bees, wasps, flies, moths, caterpillars. When the baby moves to one hand feeding per day, hand feed only at night so the baby has all day to investigate its new food. Forages by watching from a perch and flying out to catch insects. Baby birds get all the water they need from the food they eat. It will occasionally eat small fish. 2. Orphaned squabs can be fed on baby parrot food since these contain the same nutrients that are needed by doves. Instinctively, they know to keep the nest clean by removing the waste right away.\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;Phoebes are among the most dedicated birds and these ones are no exception. Learn more about these drawings. 10 Birds that eat other Birds. The exact appearance will depend on the species, but it should remain relatively unchanged as you start offering solid food. Occasionally one male may have two mates, and may help to feed the young in two nests at once. Streamsides, farms, woodland edges. Answer Save. Young usually leave nest about 16 days after hatching. It’s also the hardiest, breeding as far north as the Alaskan arctic, much further north, in fact, than any other flycatcher. furryscaly. Almost entirely insects. Make sure it is in a warm and calm space. If you are talking about a wildlife bird they eat worms. Nest (built by female) is an open cup with a solid base of mud, built up with moss, leaves, and grass, lined with fine grass and animal hair. The robins may wish to consume these fruits and berries later in the day near the end of its feeding time. Fledgling bird … Baby birds have very demanding dietary needs. Baby birds don’t eat overnight, so they need a good meal to hold them over while they’re sleeping. Phoebes are small birds of the flycatcher family. What Do Lizards Eat? If you have found a baby wild bird, do NOT attempt to feed it if you have no experience. Young birds need live insects for protein to develop properly, and their parents will feed them 3-4 times every hour to meet that need. For the rest of this blog, we’ll be discussing the timeline of a chicken egg! Examples of birds who attack chicks are: Blue Jays; Crows; Grackles; Hawks ; Owls. As you start introducing solid foods, keep an eye on the baby bird’s poop. Parent birds do not use scent to identify their young, so they will not abandon a baby after it has been touched by humans, Bakula said. They typically place their mud-and-grass nests in protected nooks on bridges, barns, and houses, which adds to the species’ familiarity to humans. Tiny baby phoebe birds eat shockingly enormous meals. Phoebes are small birds of the flycatcher family. Your support helps secure a future for birds at risk. Our email newsletter shares the latest programs and initiatives. Both will catch food for the young and the male will also bring the female food while she sits on the nest.\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;These two phoebes have found a sheltered spot on a beam under an overhanging deck of a log cabin on a remote lake in Parry Sound, Ontario. An Eastern Phoebe's nest is large, and made of mud and lined with grasses, hair, fibers, feathers and moss. Eagles are large birds which belong to the family Accipitridae, and to several genera that are not closely related to each other. It can aspirate and die. Both will catch food for the young and the male will also bring the female food while she sits on the nest. Young usually leave nest about 16 days after hatching. There are altricial birds [above], and most birds we’re familiar with, songbirds, are altricial.They lie in the nest cup helpless, and their parents feed them. National Audubon Society I had one nest where the Phoebe had starting laying her eggs, after two eggs the weather turned very cold and we received eight inches of snow. Say’s Phoebe (Sayornis saya) is the most colorful of the phoebes, gray above but a smart buffy orange below. The basic foods mentioned in these diets can be classified into two groups: MEAT: P/D dog food (canned and available from most veterinarians), dry puppy kibbles (have to be soaked in water), boiled chicken, strained beef baby food, hard boiled chicken egg yolk, live insects such as flies and mealworms. The mites live off baby bird blood (and adults)--often the babies can survive it, but if the infestation is too heavy, the birds will either jump out of the nest or die in the nest itself. Phoebe is an alternative name for the Roman moon-goddess Diana, but it may also have been chosen to imitate the bird's call. Start with an instant baby bird formula specially developed for wild birds. The Black phoebe builds a nest out of mud. We protect birds and the places they need. Their nest is an open cup sometimes placed on man-made structures. They are also known to be very devoted parents, with both the male and the female sharing in the responsibilities. Over 6,000 species of lizards exist in the world today. Now often builds nest under bridges, in barns, in culverts, or in other artificial sites. Their eyes may not even open for a week or so. It may take 3 weeks to complete a nest. Audubon’s scientists have used 140 million bird observations and sophisticated climate models to project how climate change will affect this bird’s range in the future. No matter what you do you'll never be able to feed such a tiny baby the right consistency of food, at the correct temperature, and as frequently as it will need to eat in order to survive. This article provides information on what these birds eat. Small fruits and berries are eaten often during the cooler months, and are probably an important part of the winter diet. This could be seeds, like in small parrots, or fish and squid if it's a sea bird. It also eats fruits and berries in cooler weather. Current numbers are apparently stable. Some lizard types are considered to be menacing predators. Audubon protects birds and the places they need, today and tomorrow. A very small amount of Hand Feeding formula (HFF) may be given in the morning to stimulate appetite. They open their mouths hungrily and chirp their demands for food. They typically place their mud-and-grass nests in protected nooks on bridges, barns, and houses, which adds to the species’ familiarity to humans. The babies start to wiggle until their bums are hanging over the edge of the nest. The bird should have plenty of room and should be placed in a warm and safe room away from predators. Hawks from perch, hovers. If the bird doesn’t seem to know what to do with the food in its dish, take a pair of tweezers and tap at the dish. Следующее. Pet food is best for Fledgling bird but you cannot provide it on constant basis because this little bird usually lives on its own and will rely on insects etc. Black Phoebe juveniles were begging food from their parents at the upper pond. Best of all, its gentle tail-wagging habit and soft fee-bee song make the Phoebe easy to identify, unlike many flycatchers. Are the Trump Administration's Environmental Rollbacks Built to Last? Hawks do eat birds that are smaller than them. Adults typically raise 2 broods per year. What do Baby Doves Eat? Where birds go and what birds do during a storm depends on the type of bird and the severity of the rains. Their beak opens and the parent pops the large insect in, occasionally stuffing the meal deep into the baby's mouth. WildCreatures Published June 13, 2018 2,996 Views $5.47 earned. Squabs are usually fed by their mothers who digest seeds before offering it to their young. Insects make up great majority of summer diet; included are many small wasps, bees, beetles, flies, true bugs, grasshoppers, and others. However their brains are relatively large and their learning abilities are greater than those of most other birds. They get conspicuous, until they're just one big, tempting mouthful for a squirrel, hawk, or cat. On the yolk, there is a very tiny white spot called the embryonic disc. You must have seen eagles feasting on their prey, either on the ground or high up on tree tops. White, sometimes with a few dots of reddish brown. What Do Birds Do At Night? Same site may be used repeatedly, and may build on top of old nest. Developing Baby Birds After an egg is fertilized, the embryo starts developing. Often the adu Both parents bring food for nestlings. When do I start hand feeding a baby bird? Home / Uncategorized / What do Eagles Eat. If you have an insect-eating bird, add protein such as hard-boiled egg yolk and/or kitten chow soaked in water until moist. For fledglings, the best thing to do is to leave the bird alone or if the bird may be in danger of other animals, put the baby on the branch of a bush or low hanging tree limb. Here's how to tell them apart by their songs. Despite its plain appearance, this flycatcher is often a favorite among eastern birdwatchers. Passerine birds are divided into two suborders, the suboscines and the oscines. Before these sites were common, phoebes nested on bare rock outcrops and still do occasionally. 5. After the eggs hatch, the cowbird baby is larger and will kick out the smaller Phoebe young or eggs and the Phoebe parent will raise the baby cowbird as it's own, not knowing what has happened. They seem to choose nest sites with woody understory vegetation nearby, possibly to make the nest site less visible or to provide pe… It’s the least you can do. Monitor the baby bird’s poop for changes in the consistency. Species. Relevance. The wings and tail are dark gray. Chances are the baby won't make it because it takes training to feed a bird. They feed on insects of all sorts, perching on a branch until they spot a meal to chase down. Most mongooses are predators, although among them there are also omnivorous species. The genus name is constructed from the specific part of Bonaparte's name for Say's phoebe, Muscicapa saya, and Ancient Greek ornis meaning "bird". Birds, when they are born, are not capable of breaking down food so their parents must first partially digest food to make is safe for baby birds. Photo: Dick Dickinson/Audubon Photography Awards, Adult. The length and thickness of a weaver bird's bill often determines what it eats. Tiny baby phoebe birds eat shockingly enormous meals - YouTube This mud nest is placed on a cliff, bridge, or building. Embed License Share. This phoebe is insectivorous, and often perches conspicuously when seeking food items. The next day Sal once again takes up Phoebe's story. Say's Phoebe: Medium-sized, active flycatcher with gray-brown upperparts and head, paler gray throat and upper breast, and pale rufous belly and undertail coverts. If you do it improperly, you can injure or kill the bird. Baby birds generally eat whatever their parents are having for dinner because the parent must regurgitate its food into the mouths of its offspring. These brown-and-white songbirds sit upright and wag their tails from prominent, low perches. For people not familiar with brown-headed cowbirds, they are nest parasites. Type in your search and hit Enter on desktop or hit Go on mobile device. They can be attracted to corn, oats, wheat, and other types of grain or weed seeds. This can be purchased online or at your local pet supplies store. More Birds … You use a medicine dropper syringe and squirt some in the side of the mouth. A chick may be removed from the parents any time before weaning, but many suggest leaving the babies with the parents for up to 3 weeks. Some bird guides eschew words for more literal translations of a bird's song, but doing so ignores the point of mnemonic devices: aiding memory. Overwhelmed and Understaffed, Our National Wildlife Refuges Need Help. It may eat some fruit and few seeds, when insects are less abundant. One fell out of a tree and we are trying two it back to health. Eastern Phoebes breed in wooded areas (particularly near water sources) that provide nesting sitestypically human-built structures such as eaves of buildings, overhanging decks, bridges, and culverts. Photo: Alberto Lopez/Audubon Photography Awards. They need to eat about every two hours depending on the age. A question came in to my blog in the last few days and someone asked if she should pull a cowbird egg from a nest. Bald Eagle. Perches in shrubs or trees to eat berries. The Eastern Phoebe is predominantly insectivorous, consuming mostly flying insects such as wasps, ants, flies and wild bees. Most are caught in mid-air, some are taken from foliage while hovering briefly. They eat the food the parent birds feed them. This book covers all the native and vagrant species of birds seen on the North American Continent. These include such animals as possums, cats, squirrels, skunks, and foxes. Certain species of hawks are accipiters which means that other birds make up a large proportion of their diet. Relevance? Young birds need live insects for protein to develop properly, and their parents will feed them 3-4 times every hour to meet that need. No human other than a licensed bird rehabber has the proper equipment, food supplements, or endurance to keep up that frantic feeding schedule. Pidaro? Most baby birds leave the nest before they can fly well, because it's too dangerous to stay there any longer. Considerations . All lizards belong to the Reptiles family in the animal kingdom.Lizards feed on different kinds of food sources from fruits, small insects, worms, frogs, and even small birds.. A very, strong, large snake invaded the nest on my poirch. Also drops to the ground to pick up insects there. Members of this diverse group make up more than half of the bird species worldwide. The amount of time it takes for the bird to hatch depends on the size of the adult bird. The parents fly back and forth repeatedly, bringing a meal every few minutes.\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;\u0026lt;br\u0026gt;Surprisingly, the babies are fed enormous dragonflies that seem much larger than they should be able to swallow. The Border Wall Has Been 'Absolutely Devastating' for People and Wildlife, Rulers of the Upper Realm, Thunderbirds Are Powerful Native Spirits. Bird Feeder Time: Factors Affecting When Birds Eat As avid birders, nothing is more pleasing to our eyes than seeing our feeder(s) full of a variety of bird species. They typically seek sheltered areas such as this to build their nest. Nest: Original sites were probably always on vertical streambanks or small rock outcrops in the woods, with a niche providing support below and some shelter above. Doves may continue to feed their squabs even after they leave or fall from the nest. They often slowly lower and raise their tails while perched. As for the nighttime birds (called nocturnal birds), they become very active and vocal. 1 rumble. 9 years ago. Say's Phoebe: Medium-sized, active flycatcher with gray-brown upperparts and head, paler gray throat and upper breast, and pale rufous belly and undertail coverts. What do baby black birds eat.? Often times the parents will regurgitate pieces of whole or partially digested food. Choose a temperature scenario below to see which threats will affect this species as warming increases. The newly-hatched baby birds apparently do eject fecal sacs from the start, and the parent birds often (always?) Start with an instant baby bird formula specially developed for wild birds. The book called "The Complete Birds of North America", is a book recommended to be part of any birders library. What do baby birds eat? 1 decade ago. They will continue this hectic pace for several more weeks until the babies are ready to fly.Source \u0026 embed code: https://rumble.com/v5my8s-tiny-baby-phoebe-birds-eat-shockingly-enormous-meals.html.For licensing, please email licensing@rumble.com. Pairs typically raise one or two broods a season. Also, keep in mind, it is illegal for you to try and raise this bird on your own. Chapter 24: Birds of Sadness. Seemingly quite tame, it often nests around buildings and bridges where it is easily observed. Baby birds eat often and require excellent nutrition to develop normally. Can This Critically Endangered Bird Survive Australia's New Climate Reality? Considering the size of the bugs, and the frequency with which each one gets fed, these babies eat a tremendous amount of food. A. This is what then turns into a baby bird. Baby birds have very demanding dietary needs. If you have an insect-eating bird, add protein such as hard-boiled egg yolk and/or kitten chow soaked in water until moist. View Larger Image; Post #56 of 100 Days of Blogging. Male defends nesting territory by singing, especially at dawn. The wings and tail are dark gray. These birds wait on a perch and then catch insects. Also eats some spiders, ticks, and millipedes. One of our most familiar eastern flycatchers, the Eastern Phoebe’s raspy “phoebe” call is a frequent sound around yards and farms in spring and summer. Young: Both parents bring food for nestlings. Weak fluttering flight with shallow wing beats. Since suet can be messy to Our high quality EcoTough® House Wren/Chickadee bird house allows for proper drainage and ventilation to keep the nest and babies dry and has an. Number one, baby birds this small will not survive when taken care of by a human, especially an inexperienced one. The eastern phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) is a small passerine bird.The genus name Sayornis is constructed from the specific part of Charles Lucien Bonaparte's name for Say's phoebe, Muscicapa saya, and Ancient Greek ornis, "bird". This is an interesting question. May be limited mostly by availability of good nest sites, which are often along streams. What do they eat? The day comes when the baby birds … eat the fecal sacs of these very young babies. The last two species mostly eat songbirds but the larger Northern Goshawks also consumes larger birds like grouse. Most are small. The phoebe nest in the same location the previous year, above a door. Their diet consist mainly of small seeds. It is among the earliest of migrants, bringing hope that spring is at hand. Because the robin's beak is sharply pointed, we know it is more a carnivor than a seed eater. In the wild, a baby bird learns to eat solid food by watching the adults around it. How do I care for a baby Eastern Phoebe bird? 3. Mostly insects, some berries. That depends greatly on the species. PROTECTION / THREATS / STATUS: Answer Save. Mostly eat mongooses of different insects, crustaceans, small reptiles and mammals. Also, never give a baby bird water by dropper. They are also known to be very devoted parents, with both the male and the female sharing in the responsibilities. Both parents help feed the young, which leave the nest at 14 to 16 days. Do NOT put a dish of water in the cage. While this may seem counterintuitive to helping baby birds, young birds have precise dietary needs that can't be met with kitchen scraps, birdseed, or other foods. Or take action immediately with one of our current campaigns below: The Audubon Bird Guide is a free and complete field guide to more than 800 species of North American birds, right in your pocket. After the young birds have fledged, the male continues feeding the fledglings while the female begins the next brood. Subscribe 28K Share. Spread the word. 9 years ago. About 80% of the patients at Pacific Wildlife Care are birds. Eastern Phoebe feeds primarily on insects, such as flying insects, wasps, ants, flies, and wild bees. Older birds may prove to be more challenging in their acceptance of hand feeding. Generally, the female builds the nest on her own, and then incubates four to five eggs for 12 to 15 days. Leave a comment below. Mostly insects, some berries. Rumble / Funny & Cute Animals — Phoebes are small birds of the flycatcher family. Baby food would be a good food in a pinch or … Text © Kenn Kaufman, adapted from That night, the travelers, much to their amusement, sleep on waterbeds at a hotel. Do not give baby birds food or water. Feeds primarily on insects. Eastern Phoebes and Wood-Pewees are vocal birds. This article provides information on what these birds eat. Black Phoebes eat bugs with the same gusto as any other flycatcher, but will also go after tiny fish. Small fruits and berries are eaten often during the cooler months, and are probably an important part of the winter diet. Migrates quite early in spring and late in fall, especially compared to other flycatchers. These brown-and-white songbirds sit upright and wag their tails from prominent, low perches. Baby doves are called a squab. Help power unparalleled conservation work for birds across the Americas, Stay informed on important news about birds and their habitats, Receive reduced or free admission across our network of centers and sanctuaries, Access a free guide of more than 800 species of North American birds, Discover the impacts of climate change on birds and their habitats, Learn more about the birds you love through audio clips, stunning photography, and in-depth text. Favourite answer.